The Soviet Tourist Industry as Seen by the Western Tourists of the late Soviet Period
by Auvo Kostiainen, Dept. of History Univ. of Turku, Finland
XIIIInternational Congress of Economic Historians, Buenos Aires, July 22-26,2002
The Tradition of Tourism in the Soviet Union
Travel and tourism have a long tradition in Russia. The first travel guidebooks were issued as early
as the late eighteenth century. Travel development in the nineteenth century Russia mainly followed
the trends of the Western countries. In the Soviet Union tourism, featuring excursions to various
targets, was primarily seen as a means of educating Soviet citizens. Such education could be
designed to serve economic ends, but the ideological aim of promoting “Homo Sovieticus” seems to
have dominated. Educational tourism activities started in the 1920s, with active leadership from
Lenin’s wife N.K. Krupskaya as well as the Soviet minister of education, A.V. Lunacharsky(1. There
were domestic excursions and travel for the people's education, organised and guided mainly by
trade unions, co-ordinated with the vacations of the Soviet workers.
In the inter-war years the Soviet Union did design tourism even for foreign tourists, and, to guide
those activities, Intourist was established in 1929. The Soviet tourism organisers emphasised that
foreigners would be allowed to meet people from their own sectors of life - foreign farmers would
meet Soviet farmers, foreign teachers would meet Soviet teachers, etc. It seems that the Soviet
government officials were quite satisfied with the results of foreign visits to the country, believing
that the Soviet Union garnered new friends because of the visitors. Foreign tourism also promoted
Soviet interests in forwarding “world peace”.(2 Thus, tourism, both for Soviet citizens and for
foreigners, promoted Soviet ideology and provided a vehicle for pro-Soviet propaganda.
Before the Second World War, only a small number of foreign tourists arrived in the country yearly,
amounting to only a few thousand. In the 1930s even large cruise ships brought Westerners for
short visits. Usually the tourists from the West represented the media or were members of various
delegations, such as trade unions and friendship groups. Quite a few Western journalists stayed
more or less permanently in Moscow, where the Press Bureau of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs
supervised their activities. When these journalists' reports turned too critical, the government
restricted their movements or revoked their permission to stay in the country. For example, two
well-known Western journalists in Moscow in the early 1930s, Malcolm Muggeridge and William
Chamberlin, recollected that they grew most tired of Intourist officials' watchful eyes and their
efforts to limit reporting activities. Intourist interference with Western journalists revealed that
agency's links with the government, which wished to control the movement of foreigners in the
country(3. Also, well-known Western intellectuals felt dissatisfied with their own society and
considered the Soviet model as their ideal(4.
The post Second World War years witnessed certain important changes in international travel.
Tourism rates grew quickly in the West, and in the early 1950s tens of millions of travellers crossed
international borders each year. In this climate of increased travel, the Soviet Union realised that
they could profit, both financially and propagandistically, from tourism. Active planning of tourism
commenced, as well as the building of hotels, resorts and transportation systems. In the midseventies
more than three million travellers from the Eastern block visited the Soviet Union each
year, while only a few hundred thousand came from the West(5. At that time 30000 specially
schooled tourist guides worked in the tourist bureaus all over the country(6. Among the most
frequent visitors from the West were the tourists from Finland, a neighbouring country close to the
former capital St. Petersburg, then called Leningrad, followed by West German tourists(7.
This paper presents a number of comments, notices, remarks, complaints and other information
from Western sources regarding Soviet tourism and the travel(8 industry. The concept of a “tourist
industry” includes all the branches of the economy involved in tourism activities. The World
Tourism Organization defines the travel industry as the composite of organisations, both public and
private, that are involved in the development, production, distribution, and marketing of products
and services to serve the needs of travellers(9.
Information gathered here comes mainly from tourists' personal memoirs and travel descriptions,
travel and guidebooks. Of great interest for our paper are the materials collected in Finland in the
early 1980s and preserved in an archival collection. These Finnish materials consist of memoirs and
descriptions written by more than one hundred individuals recollecting their trips to the Soviet
Union from the 1950s to the late 1970s. The memoirs were compiled mainly by tourists on
chartered bus tours to the Soviet Union, guided by Intourist. The tourist memoirs reveal the various
ways Westerners encountered the Soviet tourist industry and its representatives and include
accounts of border crossings and dealings with customs officials. Other tourist comments focus on
the programs available for them and on the Soviet's totalitarian system's control over their activities.
Tourists also write about everyday activities, such as shopping and amusements. The writers of the
primary research materials were mostly middle-aged men and women, “ordinary” Western tourists,
among them even a few students. By social background they were mostly factory or secretarial
workers, although a few were quite well paid white-collar workers. Almost all of them had travelled
abroad to other destinations - most often to the Scandinavian countries or Middle or Southern
Europe. The trips they made to the Soviet Union from Finland were quite short, lasting only a few
days, except for trips to the Black Sea “Soviet South” which usually lasted longer. In comparison,
West German tourists had longer trips than the Finns, in the form of round trips and urban tourism.
German tourists usually arrived by trains or by airlines(10.
Crossing of the State Border
Entering and leaving the Soviet Union was especially stressful for quite a few visitors. Naturally,
contact with Soviet government officials began when a tourist applied for a visa. Getting a Soviet
visa was normally not a problem for a tourist - the procedure followed the pattern set by other
countries receiving tourists and could be taken care of by travel agencies in most cases. However, it
is impossible to discover the special treatment various visa applications received or how carefully
an individual’s application was scrutinised.
Various categories of persons travelled for vacations to the Soviet Union. Travellers from Finland
to the Soviet Union, for example, formed two main types. Firstly, the “official” and “semi-official”
travellers included various cultural and political delegations as well as friendship tours. Secondly, a
growing number of ordinary tourists arrived as members of groups, mostly on chartered buses or
regular trains(11. The second group was by far the larger one and expanded quite continuously. The
great bulk of the tourists authoring our archival materials belonged to the second group. A lot of
tourists participated in various friendship tours organised, for example, by the Soviet - Finnish
The actual crossing of the borders of the Soviet Union appears to be worth remembering for many
travelling people. An internationally known Polish author, Ryszard Kapucinsky, wrote a lively
description of strict and aggressive soldiers and customs officials pointing rifles at passengers on a
train entering the Soviet Union from China in 1958(12. Several other Westerners coming to the
country experienced the same kinds of distress, caused perhaps by the Cold War’s antagonistic
climate. Tourists encountered the same kind of hostile attitude leaving the country. Finnish tourists
commented that they felt relief to be back in their own country.(13 Heeke claims that even if the
procedures were quite unpleasant, they added to the exotic feature of Soviet tourism(14. Tourists also
remember border controls in another Socialist country, the DDR as very strict, with rigid customs
procedures and regulations; passport, visa, and foreign currency checks; mandatory filling out of
forms; and even searches under the beds(15.
One of the most memorable details of the customs system may have been the foreign currency
exchange control. The Soviet Union strictly controlled foreign currency in an attempt to curtail
illegal activities falling outside of the sanctioned Soviet economy. Ordinary tourists filled out a
special form at the border station as they entered the country and another form as they left the
country. By comparing these two forms, customs officials were able to draw some conclusions
about the use of money in the Soviet Union. Importing Soviet currency from outside the country
was not allowed, neither was the export of Soviet cash. Tourists buying souvenirs in the Soviet
Union were expected to prove at the border station where the money came from. This system of
currency control is in principle still in place in present day Russia.
The customs and other procedures at the border were therefore generally speaking quite strict.
However, there were many kinds of travellers and the treatment they received may have differed
considerably. For example, the well-known travel writer and journalist Göran Schildt was taken to
the Soviet Union as a special guest invited by the Ministry for Cultural Affairs of the Soviet Union
in 1953 and the trip was funded by the Swedish newspaper Svenska Dagbladet. He received a kind
of “royal treatment”, with a special guide, Nelly, reserved for him for all the three weeks(16. He may
be seen as representative of the special delegation guests.
Going to Places
The places a foreign tourist could visit appear to have been quite strictly regulated. On the one
hand, the Soviets wanted to closely control the travel experiences of foreign tourists; on the other
hand, they hoped that tourism would provide the world with a positive view of their country and its
culture, economics, and common life style.
Since Soviet tourism served an ideological purpose to construct a positive picture of the country, the
tourist guides had quite an important task to perform. The guides were well trained with academic
background and special courses; they were able to use various languages quite well, and the tourists
appreciated their “technical skills”. According to Galina Sergeeva, herself a former guide, a Soviet
tourist guide was defined as “a fighter on the ideological front, one who propagandises the
achievements of the building of communism and the Soviet way of life”.(17 On the other hand, the
guides most probably reported the behaviour of their groups. Only more thorough research can
reveal the level of detail these reports contained(18.
Sanctioned tourist itineraries were quite conventional and routine-like. Commonly, tourists would
take a “survey trip” of the location. Ordinarily in Leningrad this kind of trip would entail driving
along the most important streets of the city centre and making short stops at the prominent Russian
or Soviet history sights.
Ordinary tourists in Leningrad visited the Hermitage, St. Isaac’s Cathedral, the shops on the Nevsky
Prospect, and, depending on personal preferences, the circus, a concert, or a ballet. Depending on
the length of the stay, travellers went to the Tsar palaces in the neighbourhood of Leningrad, such
as the Peterhof. Practically all of the important pre-revolutionary sights were described as Russian
achievements, overlaying Tsarist history with a veneer of nationalist pride(19. The Soviet guides
were probably educated to emphasize that the great constructions in St. Petersburg bore witness to
Russian skills, even if the most famous architects - such as Francesco Bartolommeo Rastrelli and
Giovanni Quarenghi - were foreign-born. The Soviet guidebook from 1965 claims that the most
important architect in the late eighteenth century was, however, Russian I. Starov.
Tourists did visit a large number of popular sights connected with Russian born writers or poets
such as Mikhail Dostoyevsky, Nicolai Gogol, and Alexander Pushkin. In addition to the
revolutionary leader V.I. Lenin, Peter the Great, who founded the city of St. Petersburg in 1703,
dominated the tourist trip in many ways. Several locations, statues, palaces and memorial locations
honoured him and opened for the Western tourist the historical glory of the Tsarist empire. In the
Soviet capitol of Moscow, the Kremlin fortress and its ancient churches and palaces were the most
commonly visited tourist sights in addition to Red Square. An ordinary Western tourist would
probably have the chance to see the Lenin mausoleum after only a short wait while Soviet pilgrims
to the Lenin tomb had to queue up for hours. Göran Schildt recalls that he and his tourist guide went
ahead of those waiting in line because they had the permission of the Ministry for Cultural
Although the sights mentioned above date mostly from pre-Revolutionary Russia, foreign tourists
could also see various kinds of sights from the Soviet period. One group of sights commemorated
political and revolutionary achievements and events and included the battleship Aurora as well as
the Taurida Palace where the group led by V.I. Lenin met to engage the revolutionary process of
1917. A second kind of Soviet-era tourist sight included statues of leading Soviet cultural and
political personalities. A travel guidebook from the mid-sixties proudly numbered about 230 statues
or locations in Leningrad associated with Lenin’s activities in the city(21. A third kind of Soviet
tourist attraction centred on other important memorials such as the one erected in memory of the
siege of Leningrad during the Second World War when the Germans encircled and bombed the city
for 900 days. In a fourth kind of tourist stop, new industrial facilities showed the progress of the
Soviet technology, such as the new TV - towers, the Elektrosila factories in Leningrad, or the large
fair grounds in Moscow called “the Display of the Soviet Achievements”. Tourists were also shown
schools, sports facilities, People’s Cultural Palaces; and, finally, the huge new suburbs of Leningrad
and other major Soviet cities.
Some tourists travelled outside of the major city centres of Leningrad and Moscow. It was even
possible to organise specially planned group trips to smaller country towns, primarily in the form of
delegation visits. Tourists could visit, for example, a sovkhoz or kolkhoz to get introduced to the
growing of cows, pigs, potatoes or some other farm commodity. These visits needed to be
scheduled well in advance and, of course, were engineered to show the progressive sides of the
Special trips were taken, for example, into the Caucasian mountain states and the Central Asian
Soviet Republics and their capitols of Bokhara and Tashkent. From the 1970s on, tours to the shores
of the Black Sea, the Crimean peninsula, and especially Sotchi became more popular and quite
frequent. Those regions had been favourite summer residences for the gentry and imperial family in
the Tsarist period. Black Sea tourism spots became Soviet versions of the sunny Mediterranean
shores of Italy, Spain and Greece. While tourists visiting the West might savour Mallorca or a
Canary Islands fruit farm, Black Sea tourism offered the sovkhoz or kolkhoz, specialising in slightly
As mentioned above, Soviet officials saw foreign tourism as a possible means of promoting pro-
Soviet propaganda. Quite a few memoirs comment on the ideological nature of Soviet tourism. For
example, a middle-aged female tourist complains that the presentations of the tourist guides were
too propagandistic and she tired of them. Another tourist becomes aggravated with her fellow
travellers - primarily young communist supporters who wished to see their ideal country. The
journalist Göran Schildt recounts that he engaged in “ideological battles” with the special tourist
guide Nelly assigned to him(23.
The Means of Controlling the Tourist
Control over the Western tourists was executed in many ways. One type of control already
described occurred at the borders and with document and customs checks. A second type of control
involved guiding the actual movements of the tourists and supervising tourist housing. For example,
the hotel staff took over guest passports and returned them only when the guests checked out - a
system prevailing even in present Russia.
Regarding movement inside the Soviet Union, a tourist was ordinarily bound to follow either the
group he or she belonged to or an individual tourist plan prepared by Soviet officials. The
movement of foreign passenger cars as well as buses on the Soviet roads was controlled although,
beginning in the 1960s, tourists were allowed to take cars of their own into the country as long as
they followed certain routes and overnighted at locations within the controlled system of
campgrounds and hotels. Even given these controls, individual motorists actually did have the
chance to move around in the Soviet Union, even in the early 1960s. A few of the Finnish tourists
took a longer bus trip all the way from Finland to Moscow and Sotchi on the Black Sea. It was a
three-week trip - one week for driving the bus from Finland, one week in Sotchi, and one week for
the return trip back home(24.
Since Intourist tried to guide and control foreign visitors, tourist itineraries followed certain regular
routes and included visits to Leningrad targets such as the Hermitage, monuments of the war
victims, and Lenin's statues. Guides also customarily arranged theatre, opera, ballet, circus,
restaurant, and other evening entertainments. Such schedules left little time for non-guided
programs. It seems that most of the tourists actually followed the daily program. Tourist guides
were schooled to follow certain routes; they knew which sights or routes were prohibited and which
were open for Western tourists. As mentioned above, guides wrote reports on the tourists and their
behaviour. Some suspicious tourists thought they were being watched almost all the time and
passed on stories about spy systems in hotel rooms. An account circulated about the new 20-storey
hotel Viru built in the Soviet Estonian capitol Tallinn, which became a popular sleeping place for
tourists from Finland. A construction company from Finland built the hotel, and working men who
had actually participated in the construction claimed that the concrete walls of the hotel were
hollowed out so that they could accommodate wires and cables for spying(25. This story is hardly not
just an urban legend, many Finnish guests in the hotel were made uncomfortable by watchful eyes
and the searching of personal belongings during the night(26. Heeke comments that among the West
German tourists especially Hotel Berlin in Moscow had the reputation of a "KGB -hotel" with
electronic spying devices etc.(27
The Soviet system of tourist control may be compared with the concept of “the back” and “the
front” of tourism sights presented by sociologist Dean MacCannell. According to MacCannell,
many factors involved in tourism may not be understood or confronted by the tourists, and those
factors may be quite essential for understanding the whole of the tourism system(28. In the Soviet
Union a foreign tourist was able to see and meet with the “front” factors such as museums and
ordinary sights. However, usually he did not meet the real “back” of tourism such as the actual life
of the Soviet people or the guiding political system.
Several Western tourists comment on the possibility of meeting Soviet citizens. A study published
by sociologist Hannele Palosuo in 1976 found that approximately 40% of the tourists wished to
have some contact with “ordinary” Soviet citizens - they were curious about the Soviet system and
its people. Palosuo discovered that about 30% of the tourists had had some contact with Soviet
citizens(29. However, Palosuo doesn’t state what kind of contacts were actually realised. Tourists
wishing to meet Soviet citizens probably hoped to witness the actual way of life of the Soviet
people, perhaps even seeing them in their homes, but the opportunity to visit ordinary homes
probably was quite rare. Group meetings - between delegations, at festival dinners, for example -
were easier to arrange. Of course, outside of controlled tourism, individual tourists did sometimes
manage to contact individual Soviet people. But, among the tourists recollecting their trips to the
Soviet Union, several complain about not having the possibility to meet with ordinary Soviet
citizens. They met only the so-called official representatives of the country(30.
Shopping and Currency: Black Market and the Beriozka
The Soviet economic system looked very strange to the foreign tourists who used its services. That
strangeness, flowing from the Soviet socialist society and its activities, becomes a common topic in
many of their memoirs. Generally tourists find the society “grey” and detect something strange in
the restaurant menus as well as in the preparation of the food. A few details irritated some Western
visitors. One of those details was the hotel system, which included special women employees
controlling room keys and passage through the corridors. Finnish visitors suspected that those tough
looking "Dezurnaya women" were on duty to monitor tourist activities. Hotel guests also worried
about the safety of their luggage(31. According to Heeke, Germans tourists appreciated these
services, which added to the prestige of the large hotels(32.
The role of the women guarding the hotel floors became even more confusing to many visitors,
since quite a few of the women were willing to buy black market products from Western tourists.
Problems arose when tourists and guards were unable to communicate through lack of a common
Nearly every tourist memoir comments on the demand for Western commodities. The black market
for Western commodities became so widely known that most tourists customarily brought into the
country some minor things to sell - clothes or Western technology. Of course, if the number of
those items intended for sale became large, Soviet customs officials might intervene and confiscate
the commodities. However, it seems that the customs officials permitted tourists to sell a small
number of items. With the help of these small illegal sales - along with the black market currency
exchange available everywhere in the neighbourhood of tourist centres, hotels, bus and train
stations - Western tourists were able to cover some of their currency expenditures. Apparently the
“black market” was one reason for the fact that, for example, tourists from Finland were apt to
spend their cheap currency in liquor stores and bars(33.
Western tourists also found strange the system of shops called Beriozhka. The chain of Beriozhka
shops extended to all the tourist regions all over the vast country. The system, meant for foreign
currency sales, was established before the Second World War with the so-called Insnab shops. In
the Beriozhka you were able to buy only with foreign currency. The system tried to guide the
shopping of the foreign tourists, but Soviet citizens were able to use the Beriozhka to a certain
extent too. Product standards in the Beriozhka’s were quite ordinary, although most of the items for
sale there could be classified as souvenirs - cards, glassware, jewellery and musical instruments.
Tourists typically bought most of their souvenirs from the Beriozhka shops. They had currency to
spend in the nightclubs as well as restaurants, musical shows and other places of amusement. Quite
a few problems arose from the excessive use of alcohol by the tourists. Problems of public
drunkenness became so widespread that tourists from Finland came to be known as “vodka
tourists”. The illegal markets for goods and currency exchange gave impetus to this kind of
behaviour - especially since tourists weren’t permitted to export Soviet money - they had to use
their Rubles in the Soviet Union(34.
As mentioned above, the number of tourists from abroad grew steadily. During the last years of the
Soviet Union, control of the tourism industry eased with Gorbachev's glaznost policy. Some
travellers note that the tourist trade became more commercial, and the ordinary tourist no longer felt
as spied upon - or as important - as he or she had during earlier decades(35.
A “Planet Mars” for the Western Tourist?
Many different kinds of people visited the Soviet Union, and their experiences varied considerably.
By and large, Intourist served the great majority of ordinary Western tourists in the country. Their
trips followed certain ordinary routes, described in the schooling of the Soviet tourist guides. The
guides had to report their activities to their superiors within the central organisation Intourist, and
Intourist followed the government and party line emphasising ideological rules. Thus tourist
activities were in principle supervised from top to bottom.
Even if the Soviet tourist system normally produced routine and highly controlled tourist
experiences, exceptions were possible, especially for people considered, for one reason or another,
out of the ordinary. An important expert of a group on a friendship tour (called delegation) might
enjoy travel plans and programs designed according to their special needs. Even such special trips
were carefully designed to secure the best results from the point of view of the Soviet organisers.
Ultimately, Western tourism to the Soviet Union perhaps didn't differ so much from tourism in
Western countries. For several decades, routine trips, often called mass tourism, have been a typical
element of tourism all over the world. As a rule these trips take in the most important sights such as
palaces, museums, churches, fortresses, statues, and market places. The speciality of Soviet tourism
- and perhaps tourism in many other totalitarian states - was, however, its link to ideology. That link
appears in practically all the levels of tourist activities. Journalist Göran Schildt commented in 1954
that going to the Soviet Union was something like going to the planet Mars - an extremely exciting,
strange and new place. He described the characteristics of the Soviet socialist society and its opaque
and ubiquitous ideological apparatus(36. Listening to the speeches of the tourist guides describing
Soviet achievements, Soviet society, and its short history, Western tourists no doubt did feel as
though they were on a Soviet type “planet Mars”.
Many Soviet sympathisers visited the country following the Russian Revolution of 1917, and that
tradition continued even after the Second World War. Of course, these “ideological” tourists were
especially frequent members of the friendship tours and delegations. However, the memoirs of the
ordinary tourists coming from the neighbouring capitalist country, Finland, remained in many cases
quite critical of the Soviet tourism system and the whole of Soviet society. For them, the Soviet
Union was a kind of “Planet Mars”, they might, only after several visits, begin to know.
Museovirasto (National Board of Antiquities, Finland), Helsinki:
Collection K28. Lomamatka etelään tai yleensä ulkomaille (Travel of the Finns to the South or
Abroad in General). Cited answers no. 1, 86, 124, 26, 93, 100, 143, 253, 254, 349, 409, 451, 506,
699, 721, 775, 780, 797, 889, 1051, plus a person cited as UR, without a number.
Materials preserved by the author:
Comments from the interview by person cited as NL, St. Petersburg 1999.
Recollections of the trips by person no. 1, the trip to Rostock, DDR (1986).
Recollections of the trips by person no. 2 (Leningrad 1978), Leningrad and Moscow 1988, Moscow
Recollections of trips to Tallinn in the mid-1980’s, by person no. 3.
Travel Guidebooks, Memoirs etc:
William Henry CHAMBERLIN, Russia’s Iron Age, London, 1935.
J. DOROSINSKAJA& V. KRUTSINA-BOGDANOV, Leningrad ja sen esikaupungit matkaopas.
(Leningrad and Its Suburbs Travel Guide). Moskova, 1980.
P. KANN, Leningrad matkaopas. (Leningrad. The Travel Guide) Suom. Terttu Wikström. Moskova
nd. (c. 1965)
Ryszard KAPUS´CIN´SKI, , Imperiumi. Suom. Tapani Kärkkäinen. Helsinki,1993
Leningrad. Editions Berlitz. 2nd printing. Milan, 1979 (1976)
Malcom MUGGERIDGE, Winter in Moscow, Boston, 1934.
Göran SCHILDT, Tre veckor I Sovjet (Three Weeks in the Soviet Union). Helsingfors, 1954.
Tarja ALAMÄKI, Moskova – Neuvostoliiton näyteikkuna. (Moscow as a shopping window. The
Moscow Travel Guidebooks in 1954-1983). Moskova neuvostoliittolaisissa matkaoppaissa vuosina
1954-1983. MA thesis in general history, University of Turku, Finland, 1997.
David C.ENGERMAN, “Modernization from the Other Shore: American Observers and the Costs of
Soviet Economic Development” in American Historical Review, Vol. 105, No. 2, April 2000, pp.
Matthias HEEKE, „Mit Intourist durch die UdSSR. Der bundesdeutsche Sowiet-Tourismus“ in
Goldstrand und Teutonengrill. Kultur- und Sozialgeschichte des Tourismus in Deutchland 1945 bis
1989. Hrsg. von Hasso SPODE. Berichte und Materialen Nr. 15. Institut fur Tourismus - FU Berlin.
Berlin, 1996, pp. 163-183.
Paul HOLLANDER, Political Pilgrims. Travels of Western Intellectuals to the Soviet Union, China
and Cuba 1928-1978. New York, 1981.
International Tourism: A Global Perspective. Ed. Chuck Y. GEE, Co-ed. Eduardo FAYOS-SOLA.
Publ. by the World Tourism Organization, Madrid, 1997.
Gerlinde IRMSCHER, „Alltägliche Fremde. Auslandsreise in der DDR“ in Goldstrand und
Teutonengrill, 1996, pp. 51-67.
Auvo KOSTIAINEN, “Mass Tourists, Groups and Delegates. Travel from Finland to the Soviet
Union from 1950 to 1980” in Trends in Russian Research on Tourism. International Forum for
Tourism Research, No. 3. Savonlinna, Finland, 2-3 June 1997. Marita HEIKKINEN-RUMMUKAINEN
and Arvo PELTONEN(ed.) Savonlinna, 1998, pp. 46-50.
Auvo KOSTIAINEN, ”Matkailusta turismiin: matkailun kehitysvaiheiden erittelyä” (”On the
Periodization of Travel and Tourism”) in Soveltavan matkailututkimuksen metodisia kysymyksiä.
Hailuodossa 17.-18.8.1992 pidetyn tutkijasymposiumin raportti. Toim. Seppo Aho. Oulun
yliopisto, Pohjois-Suomen tutkimuslaitos, Oulu, 1993, pp. 11-31.
Auvo KOSTIAINEN, A Nation without Nationalities. An Essay on the Soviet Nationalities Policies of
the 1930’s and Reflections Abroad. Unpublished manuscript, Tampere, 2000.
Dean MACCANNELL, The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. With a New Foreword by
Lucy R. LIPPARDand a New Epiloque by the Author. University of California paperbacks,
Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1999.
R. MACINTOSH, C.R. GOELDNER and J.R.B. RITCHIE, Tourism: Principles, Practices and
Philosophies. New York, 1995.
Sylvia MARGULIES, The Pilgrimage to Russia. The Soviet Union and the Treatment of Foreigners,
1924-1937. Madison Wis, 1968.
Hannele PALOSUO, Leningradin matkailu. Tutkimus Leningradiin suuntautuneen matkailun
historiasta, nykyisyydestä, häiriöistä ja motiiveista. (Tourism to Leningrad. A Study Regarding Its
History, Present Day, Disturbances and Motivations). Helsinki, 1976.
Galina SERGEEVA, “History and Traditions of Excursionism in Russia” in Trends in Russian
Research on Tourism, 1998, pp. 41-45.
L. TURNER and J. ASH, The Golden Hordes. International Tourism and Pleasure Periphery. New
Grigori USYSKIN, Ocerki istorii Rossiiskogo Turiszma. (General History of Russian Tourism)
Moskva and Sankt-Petersburg, 2000.
Kai-Veikko VUORISTO, “Tourism Patterns in Eastern Europe: development and regional patterns” in
Fennia 159:1, 1981.
1Alamäki 1997, p. 14; cf. Usyskin 2000, pp. 88-122.
2Alamäki 1997, esp. p. 25.
3See, e.g., Muggeridge 1934, pp. 88-110; Chamberlin 1935, pp. 144-150; cf. Kostiainen, A
Nation without Nationalities, 2000, chapter 6, pp. 16-18, and Engerman 2000, p. 388.
4Esp. Hollander 1981, pp. 102-176.
5Kostiainen 1998; Vuoristo 1981.
6Sergeeva 1998, p. 43.
7Cf. Heeke 1996; cf. even DDR-tourists, Irmscher 1996.
8The term “travel” is often used as synonymous with “tourism”. In our presentation “travel” is
used as a general expression of moving around. Tourism is the term for travel of recent decades,
typically identified with large numbers of tourists and “industrialised” forms of travel. (Cf.
Kostiainen 1993: 11-23)
9International Tourism: A Global Perspective 1997, p. 391.
10See Heeke 1996.
11See, Kostiainen 1998, p. 36; cf. Heeke 1996, p. 164-166.
12Kapuscinski 1993 , pp. 27-29.
13E.g. memoirs of person no. 409, Collection K-28.
14Heeke 1996, p. 178.
15Recollections of a trip to DDR in 1986 by persons. no. 2.
16Schildt 1954; cf. Hollander 1981, pp. 128-135.
17Sergeeva 1998, p. 43.
18Cf. ibid., pp. 43-44.
19Kann 1965, pp. 111, 121; cf. e.g. the post Soviet guidebook St. Petersburg Travellers Guide
1995, p. 24-25, 189.
20Schildt 1954, pp. 34-35.
21Kann 1965, p. 21; cf. Dorosinskaja & Krutsina-Bogdanov 1980, pp. 105-127 for the “Lenin
routes” in the city of Leningrad. .
22Memoirs of e.g. no. 699, Collection K-28.
23Cf. memoir no. 409, Collection K-28; e.g. Schildt 1954, p. 120.
24Memoir no. 797. Collection K-28. The date of the trip remains a bit unclear, probably it was
taken in the late 1970’s.
25The memoir of person UR, Collection K-28.
26Recollection of person no. 1. Author collections.
27Heeke 1996, p. 175-177.
28MacCannell 1999, pp. 92-103.
29Palosuo 1976, table 20, pp. 76-77; at the same time a study found out that 18 % of the West
German tourists would have liked to get to known Soviet citizens personally, Heeke 1996, p. 174.
30See memoirs of persons no. 1, 1051, Collection K-28.
31E.g. memoir no. 349; memoir by UR, Collection K-28.
32Heeke 1996, p. 182, footnote 42.
33E.g. memoir no. 1, Collection K-28.
34Cf. Kostiainen 1998.
35Memoir no. 1, Collection K-28.
36Cf. Schildt 1954, p. 13.