THE END OF

 

 

a) Frequency

 

‘The end of’ was the third most frequent three-word cluster in the BEC and the fourth most frequent in the BNC.

 

N in BEC

Word

bec freq.

bec.lst %

N in BNC

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

3

THE END OF

249

0.02

4

424

0.02

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: No groups identified, but see colligation section below.

 

Right: Two groups identified.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 249 & %

example

periods of time

191 - 76.71%

the end of 1999

the end of December

the end of the year

the end of the month

at the end of the day*

meetings

8 - 3.21%

that’s the end of the meeting

until the end of the meeting

 

* At the end of the day is used metaphorically 30 times out of 33 actual occurrences - often preceded by because or but:

 

 

c) Clusters

 

6-word:

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

at the end of the day

33

2

at the end of the year

12

3

by the end of the year

6

4

at the end of the week

5

5

but at the end of the

5

6

the end of the financial year

5

7

at the end of the financial

4

8

the end of the tax year

3

9

until the end of the meeting

3

 

5-word:

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

at the end of the

72

2

the end of the day

34

3

the end of the year

23

4

by the end of #

13

5

by the end of the

13

6

at the end of #

11

7

at the end of this

8

8

the end of the week

8

9

but at the end of

6

10

the end of the meeting

6

11

end of the financial year

5

12

the end of the financial

5

13

towards the end of the

5

14

until the end of the

5

15

and at the end of

4

16

at the end of a

4

17

at the end of last

4

18

the end of # the

4

19

the end of last year

4

20

the end of this month

4

 

4-word:

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

at the end of

127

2

the end of the

117

3

by the end of

43

4

end of the day

34

5

the end of #

34

6

end of the year

23

7

the end of this

16

8

towards the end of

16

9

to the end of

11

10

end of the week

8

11

before the end of

7

12

the end of last

7

13

until the end of

7

14

but at the end

6

15

end of the meeting

6

16

the end of a

6

17

the end of December

6

18

end of the financial

5

19

of the financial year

5

20

the end of march

5

21

the end of next

5

22

the end of November

5

23

the end of October

5

24

and at the end

4

25

end of # the

4

26

end of last year

4

27

end of this month

4

28

that's the end of

4

29

the end of July

4

 

 

d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

e) Colligation

 

Definition: the end of  occurs almost entirely in pre-modified prepositional phrases (230 out of 249 examples in the sample). The most common of these are laid out below, along with their frequencies.

i) at + the end of + noun (group)

127 instances - 51% of sample

 

 

ii) by + the end of + noun (group)

43 instances - 17.26% of sample

 

 

iii) toward/s + the end of + noun group

18 instances - 7.22% of sample

 

 

Other, smaller prepositional phrases found were: before/from/to/until + the end of.

 

f) Associates

 

No associates identified.