PERFORMANCE

 

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘performance’ was the thirty-seventh most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

bec freq.

bec.lst %

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

37

PERFORMANCE

507

0.05

175

-

455.8

0.000000

 

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: Three groups identified (negative attributes are mentioned here only in order to highlight the much larger number of positive attributes).

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 500 & %

example

money/finance

40 - 8.0%

pay and performance

share-price performance

profit performance

people/groups of people

22 - 4.4%

a manager’s performance

the candidate’s performance

positive

40 - 8.0%

an awesome performance

world-beating performance

a perfect performance

negative

2 - 0.4%

the dire performance

blighted by poor performance

 

Right: No groups identified but see colligation section below.

 

 

c) Three-word clusters

N

cluster

Freq.

1

the performance of

17

2

performance in the

11

3

performance of the

10

4

of the performance

7

5

the performance criteria

7

6

performance appraisal form

6

7

term financial performance

6

8

performance criteria #

5

9

the performance appraisal

5

10

and performance of

4

11

in terms of

4

12

of performance criteria

4

13

performance over the

4

14

performance related bonus

4

15

standards of performance

4

16

the company's performance

4

17

the group's performance

4

18

to improve performance

4

 

 

 

d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

 

e) Colligation

 

COBUILD Sense 2 (how successfully something is done)

495 instances - 99.0% of sample

Patterns: Variable noun

Responsibility for improving sales performance across the business

delivering gains due to market trends rather than performance

 

COBUILD Sense 5 (performance of a task- the action of doing it)

5 instances - 1.0% of sample

Patterns: Singular noun: usually the-noun-of noun

grounds for discontinuing the supply of goods or the performance of work under the contract

They offer all the same choices of performance characteristics as ...

 

Other patterns:

 

i) noun phrases including ‘and’

19 instances - 3.8% of sample

handling and performance, pay and performance, reliability and performance, price and performance, innovation and performance, capability and performance

 

Prepositional usage:

 

ii) performance + against (showing what the performance is being measured against)

6 instances - 1.2% of sample

comparing performance against other companies can help

 

iii) performance + in (these often relate either to time or to business areas)

26 instances - 5.2% of sample

performance in the 1995 drought, performance in 1991, performance in our UK distribution business

 

iv) (the) performance + of (these often refer to products, people or companies)

32 instances - 6.4% of sample

the performance of the big pharmaceutical stocks, performance of the appraisees, performance of a company

 

f) Associates

 

 

N

WORD

NO. OF FILES

AS %

1

PERFORMANCE

14

100.00

2

COMPANIES

6

42.86

3

BUSINESS

6

42.86

4

PROFIT

5

35.71

5

SYSTEMS

5

35.71

6

COMPANY

5

35.71

 

 

Comments

 

1. ‘Performance’ is a thing that affects people on a personal level. Therefore, it can be suggested that it is intrinsically an interesting word for students and useful word combinations can be found in the BEC:

 

improve performance             feedback on performance

motivate performance                        standards of performance

bottom-line performance        a wealth of performance information

level of performance               stringent performance targets