SALE

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘sale’ was the seventh most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

bec freq.

bec.lst %

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

7

SALE

1,210

0.12

343

0.02

1,239.4

0.000000

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: One group identified (but also see colligation section below).

 

semantic prosody

frequency/  205 & %

example

availability

55 - 26.82%

available for sale

put on sale

businesses up for sale

 

Right: Three main groups identified.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/  205 & %

example

money/finance

19 - 9.26%

sale of equity securities

sale of fixed assets

products/services

20 - 9.75%

sale of the goods

sale of software

companies

17 - 8.29%

sale of VarityPerkins

sale of subsidiary

 

 

c) Three-word clusters

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

the sale of

33

2

sale of the

15

3

conditions of sale

13

4

available for sale

12

5

up for sale

11

6

of the goods

7

7

of the sale

7

8

from the sale

6

9

held for sale

6

10

loans held for

6

11

mortgage loans held

6

12

on the sale

6

13

and conditions of

5

14

before sale less

5

15

fixed maturities available

5

16

maturities available for

5

17

of fixed maturities

5

18

sale less sale

5

19

sale of its

5

20

terms and conditions

5

21

employed  before

4

22

for sale #

4

23

for the sale

4

24

put on sale

4

 

d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

 

e) Colligation

 

COBUILD Sense 1 (sale of goods)

Patterns: Noun (singular)

138 instances - 67.31% of sample

sale of the goods, the sale of shares

 

COBUILD Sense 4 (sale in a shop where goods are sold at a cut-price)

Patterns: Noun (count)

1 instance 0.48% of sample

on a blockbuster January sale

 

COBUILD Sense 7 (FOR sale -offered for people to buy)

Patterns: Phrases - for + sale

48 instances - 23.41% of sample

approved for sale, available for sale, the company is not for sale

 

COBUILD Sense 8 (ON sale: available in shops)

Patterns: Phrases: on + sale

7 instances - 3.41% of sample

Gucci goods were on sale, put on sale very quickly

 

COBUILD Sense 10 (UP FOR sale - on the market)

11 instances - 5.36% of sample

Patterns: Phrases - up + for + sale

put the 930-strong chain up for sale, American businesses up for sale

 

Other patterns:

 

i) (definite article) + sale + of + noun/noun phrase: (these refer to what is being sold - and are all business-related)

56 instances - 27.31% of sample

 

 

ii) Additional sense: point of sale (a shop or place in a shop)

3 instances - 1.46% of sample

extensive point of sale material

 

f) Associates

 

N

WORD

NO. OF FILES

AS %

1

SALE

9

100.00

2

CONDITIONS

5

55.56