TRADE

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘trade’ was the eighty-fourth most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

bec freq.

bec.lst %

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

84

TRADE

696

0.07

509

0.03

276.3

0.000000

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: Three groups identified.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 424 & %

example

macro-level demarcation

67 - 15.8%

international trade

divisional trade

overseas trade

world trade

places

34 - 8.01%

China trade

Indonesian trade

type/line of business

35 - 8.25%

fire trade

motor trade

retail trade

 

Right: Two groups, plus one small one identified.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 424 & %

example

institutions

78 - 18.39%

Department of Trade and Industry

trade unions

trade associations

people/groups of people

40 - 9.43%

trade apprentice

trade manager

trade executive

trouble - (barriers to trade)

19 - 4.48%

trade deficit

trade dispute

trade sanctions

 

 

c) Three-word clusters

 

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

overseas trade services

14

2

international trade department

12

3

department of trade

10

4

personname international trade

10

5

the motor trade

10

6

the world trade

10

7

the department of

9

8

trade and industry

9

9

of trade and

8

10

international trade executive

7

11

the international trade

7

12

world trade organisation

7

13

accredited chamber chief

6

14

in the motor

5

15

international trade and

5

16

the overseas trade

5

17

and the trade

4

18

chamber chief executive

4

19

commerce  industry

4

20

executive accredited chamber

4

21

industry international trade

4

22

may be required

4

23

of commerce

4

24

references may be

4

25

the trade missions

4

26

trade executive accredited

4

27

trade missions and

4

28

trade references may

4

29

yours sincerely personname

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

 

e) Colligation

 

Trade is overwhelmingly used as a noun rather than as a verb:

Verb: 15 instances - 3.53% of sample, (including phrasal verb trade off: 1 instance 0.23% of sample)

Noun: 409 instances - 96.46% of sample

 

COBUILD Sense 1 (the activity of buying or selling)

373 instances - 87.97% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun: usually with support

the common shares available for trade

 

COBUILD Sense 2 (Trade as a verb):

14 instances - 3.3% of sample

Patterns: Verb

continuing to trade successfully with Chile, the need to be able to trade in London

 

COBUILD Sense 3 (a particular area of business/industry)

35 instances -  8.25% of sample

Patterns: Count noun: usually with a support noun

the book trade, the Fire Protection Trade

 

COBUILD Sense 4 (the work someone does, i.e. their trade)

2 instances - 0.47% of sample

Patterns: Count noun

working at home alongside their parents learning a trade

I served my time as trade apprentice

 

Other patterns:

 

i) noun + of + trade (+ noun)

25 instances - 5.89% of sample

Department of Trade, Board of Trade, Conditions of Trade

 

f) Associates

 

The word ‘trade’ was key in 16 files. The only associate of frequency > =5 was ‘trade’ itself.