BUSINESS

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘business’ was the most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

bec freq.

bec lst %

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

1

BUSINESS

2,837

0.28

542

0.03

3,557.8

0.000000

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: A total of 7 groups were identified. However, the positive and negative groups are small, and are shown here to contrast positive and negative usage of ‘business’.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 2,551& %

example

where business takes place

(place)

56  - 2.19%

Indian business

UK business

where business takes place

(macro-level demarcation)

123 - 4.82%

international

world-wide business

overseas business

line of business

222 - 9.86%

telecoms business

hairdressing business

contract hire business

nature of business

(characteristics)

124 - 4.86%

core business

family business

daily business

money/size of business

67 - 2.62%

a high-yield business

big business

small business

£multimillion business

positive adjectives

50- 1.96%

successful business

sound business

strong business

negative adjectives

7 - 0.27%

unviable business

cut-throat business

boring business

 

Right: Four groups identified.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 2,551& %

example

people and groups of people

145 - 5.68%

business agents

business analyst

business controller

business activities

135 - 5.29 %

business administration

business analysis

business development

institutions, organisations  and companies

129 - 5.05%

business conglomerates

business school

the business press

macro-level demarcation

89 - 3.48%

business area

business sector

business segment

 

 

c) Three-word clusters

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

of the business

85

2

in the business

63

3

to the business

31

4

the business and

29

5

the business is

29

6

the business English[1]

24

7

for the business

20

8

business and the

19

9

in international business

18

10

the institute for

18

11

a business plan

17

12

for global business

17

13

institute for global

17

14

of business administration

17

15

the business of

16

16

the business plan

14

17

college of business

13

18

and the business

12

19

business English list

12

20

on the business

12

21

the business community

12

22

business areas and

11

23

the business link

11

24

as a business

10

25

credits international business

10

26

for your business

10

27

of a business

10

28

of business and

10

29

of our business

9

30

that your business

9

31

with the business

9

32

about the business

8

33

any other business

8

34

business to business

8

35

out of business

8

36

to do business

8

37

a new business

7

38

and international business

7

39

business in the

7

40

business is not

7

41

from the business

7

42

in a business

7

43

into the business

7

44

of business English

7

45

of its business

7

46

out of the

7

47

the business to

7

48

the business unit

7

49

the business world

7

50

the local business

7

51

your business is

7

52

a business and

6

53

business and computing

6

54

business as a

6

55

business at the

6

56

business of the

6

57

business on the

6

58

business unit managers

6

59

in this business

6

60

of doing business

6

61

of your business

6

62

ordinary course of

6

63

part of the

6

64

run the business

6

65

some of the

6

66

the business at

6

67

the business will

6

68

the international business

6

69

the main business

6

70

the ordinary course

6

71

when the business

6

72

within the business

6

73

your business and

6

74

a business to

5

75

a lot of

5

76

an international business

5

77

as the business

5

78

as well as

5

79

at the business

5

80

business English and

5

81

business English customers

5

82

business English experts

5

83

business link and

5

84

develop the business

5

85

do business with

5

86

English list is

5

87

for new business

5

88

Harvard business review

5

89

Harvard business school

5

90

have a business

5

91

if the business

5

92

in any business

5

93

in order to

5

94

intermediate business English

5

95

international business concentration

5

96

it is a

5

97

lot of business

5

98

nature of the

5

99

new business opportunities

5

100

start a business

5

101

that the business

5

102

the business as

5

103

the business press

5

104

the business that

5

105

the business was

5

106

the college of

5

107

the company's business

5

108

the core business

5

109

the nature of

5

110

the world business

5

111

to start a

5

112

today's business express

5

113

type of business

5

114

what the business

5

115

which is the

5

116

within  business

5

117

you have a

5

118

a business case

4

119

a business link

4

120

a business that

4

121

a number of

4

122

all the business

4

123

and business areas

4

124

as a whole

4

125

at the close

4

126

at the moment

4

127

been in the

4

128

business as usual

4

129

business development manager

4

130

business from the

4

131

business is going

4

132

business is the

4

133

business law #

4

134

business link Cityname

4

135

business plan is

4

136

by roland gribben

4

137

by the business

4

138

cent of the

4

139

close of business

4

140

core property business

4

141

course of business

4

142

development of the

4

143

globalisation of business

4

144

go into business

4

145

going into business

4

146

I’ve been in

4

147

if you are

4

148

if you have

4

149

in terms of

4

150

in that business

4

151

in the ordinary

4

152

in the uk

4

153

in your business

4

154

international business #

4

155

international business and

4

156

international business finance

4

157

international business program

4

158

international business programs

4

159

into business with

4

160

involved in the

4

161

it is not

4

162

just the business

4

163

knutsford business centre

4

164

law # credits

4

165

line of business

4

166

look at the

4

167

main business customers

4

168

minor in international

4

169

normal business hours

4

170

of business life

4

171

of business on

4

172

of international business

4

173

of the institute

4

174

one of the

4

175

our core business

4

176

over the next

4

177

parts of the

4

178

per cent of

4

179

place of business

4

180

price for the

4

181

record in business

4

182

side of the

4

183

small business administration

4

184

small business owners

4

185

sort of business

4

186

that's today's business

4

187

the business areas

4

188

the business has

4

189

the business in

4

190

the business list

4

191

the business mix

4

192

the business team

4

193

the close of

4

194

the end of

4

195

the small business

4

196

the university of

4

197

this business is

4

198

to concentrate on

4

199

to develop the

4

200

to your business

4

201

university of akron

4

202

volume of business

4

203

we do business

4

204

with a business

4

205

world business review

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

e) Colligation

 

COBUILD Sense 1 (work relating to the buying and selling of goods)

1,351 instances - 52.95% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun

we put together a business plan

... greatly affected the way they did business

carried out in cooperation  with our business partners

 

COBUILD Sense 2 (how many products/services a company is able to sell)

163 instances - 6.38% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun

business fell by a third

 

COBUILD Sense 3 (a company/firm)

523 instances - 20.5% of sample

Patterns: Count noun

We go into a business and try and rescue it

You must think of the pros and cons of starting a business from scratch

 

COBUILD Sense 4 (what you do for your job and not for pleasure)

8 instances - 0.31% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun

Travel agencies have special departments dealing with business travel

a business dinner to end all business dinners

 

COBUILD Sense 5 (line of business)

436 instances - 17.09% of sample

Patterns: Singular noun

telecoms business, hairdressing business, contract hire business, my line of business

 

COBUILD Sense 7 (important matters you have to deal with)

3 instances - 0.11% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun

conduct the following business, any other business?

 

COBUILD Sense 8 (my own business - no-one else’s concern)

2 instances - 0.07% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun

It’s not my business to manage a business

 

COBUILD Sense 9 (an event, situation or activity)

4 instances - 0.15% of sample

Patterns: Singular noun

with the forty pound business

the business of lists

the business of making strategic choices

 

COBUILD Sense 10 (an unpleasant or costly task)

3 instances - 0.11% of sample

Patterns: Singular noun

Ill health - a costly business

it’s always been a dangerous business

 

COBUILD Sense 11 (big business/show business)

big business: 8 instances - 0.31% of sample

show business: 1 instance - 0.03% of sample

 

COBUILD Sense 12 (do business - companies/people that do business with each other)

13 instances - 0.5% of sample

Patterns: phrase with noun

 

 

 

COBUILD Sense 14 (in business: a company that is currently operating or trading)

9 instances - 0.35% of sample

Patterns: Verb + link phrase

you’ve already been in business for a period of time

you may find after a year in business that you need bigger premises

 

COBUILD Sense 16 (to mean business)

1 instance - 0.03% of sample

Patterns: Verb (inflect)

gives further evidence that Daimler means business

 

COBUILD Sense 20 (out of + business)

8 instances - 0.31% of sample

Patterns: Phrase after verb

 

 

COBUILD Sense 22 (business as usual)

4 instances - 0.15% of sample

Patterns: usually verb link phrase

Business as usual is a common refrain ...

 

ADDITIONAL Senses:

 

Conversational filler:

2 instances - 0.07% of sample

all this sort of business

that sort of business, you know. The usual story

 

Other COBUILD entries:

business card: 2 instances - 0.07% of sample

business class: 5 instances - 0.19% of sample

business hours: 5 instances - 0.19% of sample

 

Other patterns:

 

i) In the BEC, ‘business’ occurs in an end of sentence position 267 times, (10.46% of sample).

‘Business’ in the PMC occurs 157 times (15.49%) of sample.

... to show that we mean business.

... a climate for creativity in business.

 

 

ii) possessive pronoun + business:

163 instances - 6.38% of sample

In the PMC there were 68 instances - 6.81% of sample

my own business, your business

 

iii) definite article the + business

485 instances - 19.01% of sample

There are links between definite article usage and  COBUILD senses 3 & 5:

The minimum target for the business to survive is £250 million (sense 3)

How did you come into the business then originally, the car business? (sense 5)

 

iv) indefinite article a + business

127 instances - 4.97% of sample

There are links between indefinite article usage and  COBUILD Sense 3:

The skills that are needed to start a business

 

Points iii) and iv) above are true except when ‘business’ is used as part of a noun group:

the business community, the business mix for 1993 was 65.5% personal ....

a business magazine

 

v) noun/adjectival group + of + business (these refer to process/activity/people/place/amount related to business)

150 instances - 5.88% of sample

principle place of business, major branch of business, close of business

 

vi) do + business

41 instances - 1.6% of sample

This compares to 59 instances  in the PMC - 5.81% of PMC sample.

 

f) Associates

 

N

WORD

NO. OF FILES

AS %

1

BUSINESS

111

100.00

2

COMPANY

27

24.32

3

WE

20

18.02

4

CUSTOMER

20

18.02

5

MANAGEMENT

19

17.12

6

CUSTOMERS

18

16.22

7

BUSINESSES

18

16.22

8

MARKET

18

16.22

9

COMPANIES

17

15.32

10

SALES

16

14.41

11

ITS

15

13.51

12

GROUP

13

11.71

13

FINANCIAL

13

11.71

14

OR

12

10.81

15

SERVICES

12

10.81

16

SHARE

11

9.91

17

COST

11

9.91

18

PROFIT

11

9.91

19

SYSTEMS

11

9.91

20

PRODUCTS

11

9.91

21

OUR

10

9.01

22

WILL

10

9.01

23

MILLION

10

9.01

24

CASH

10

9.01

25

PER

10

9.01

26

GLOBAL

9

8.11

27

REPORTING

9

8.11

28

SO

9

8.11

29

ARE

9

8.11

30

CORE

9

8.11

31

BILLION

9

8.11

32

ASSETS

8

7.21

33

GROWTH

8

7.21

34

BANK

8

7.21

35

NEW

8

7.21

36

YEAR

8

7.21

37

OK

8

7.21

38

FIRMS

8

7.21

39

DEVELOPMENT

8

7.21

40

PRODUCT

8

7.21

41

MANUFACTURING

8

7.21

42

CORPORATE

8

7.21

43

BE

8

7.21

44

PEOPLE

8

7.21

45

MARKETS

8

7.21

46

IS

7

6.31

47

INTERNET

7

6.31

48

TAX

7

6.31

49

SUPPLIERS

7

6.31

50

TEAM

7

6.31

51

YOU

7

6.31

52

ORGANISATION

7

6.31

53

MAY

7

6.31

54

SOLUTIONS

7

6.31

55

PRICE

7

6.31

56

YOUR

7

6.31

57

IN

7

6.31

58

CEO

7

6.31

59

INCREASE

7

6.31

60

CAPITAL

7

6.31

61

ERM

7

6.31

62

COMPETITIVE

7

6.31

63

EXECUTIVES

7

6.31

64

EXECUTIVE

7

6.31

65

EARNINGS

7

6.31

66

INTERNATIONAL

7

6.31

67

INDUSTRY

7

6.31

68

BANKS

7

6.31

69

SERVICE

6

5.41

70

SHAREHOLDERS

6

5.41

71

COSTS

6

5.41

72

DIRECTORS

6

5.41

73

SELL

6

5.41

74

AVERAGE

6

5.41

75

PERFORMANCE

6

5.41

76

BUDGET

6

5.41

77

THEY

6

5.41

78

STRATEGIC

6

5.41

79

STOCK

6

5.41

80

TOTAL

6

5.41

81

SHARES

6

5.41

82

SOFTWARE

6

5.41

83

SIGNIFICANT

6

5.41

84

ACCOUNTING

6

5.41

85

MANAGERS

6

5.41

86

MARKETING

6

5.41

87

EQUITY

6

5.41

88

NET

6

5.41

89

OPERATING

6

5.41

90

MANAGER

6

5.41

91

INVESTMENTS

6

5.41

92

MR

6

5.41

93

INVESTMENT

6

5.41

94

INFORMATION

6

5.41

95

EMPLOYEE

6

5.41

96

STRATEGY

5

4.50

97

INCREASED

5

4.50

98

MANAGING

5

4.50

99

HAS

5

4.50

100

TERM

5

4.50

101

TECHNOLOGY

5

4.50

102

LEADERSHIP

5

4.50

103

THAT

5

4.50

104

WE'VE

5

4.50

105

BOOK

5

4.50

106

BOOKS

5

4.50

107

TECHNOLOGIES

5

4.50

108

BECAUSE

5

4.50

109

ACTIVITIES

5

4.50

110

OPPORTUNITIES

5

4.50

111

DIRECTOR

5

4.50

112

PURCHASE

5

4.50

113

PROFITS

5

4.50

114

COMPANY'S

5

4.50

115

DIVISION

5

4.50

116

DO

5

4.50

117

PRICES

5

4.50

118

PERCENT

5

4.50

119

ORGANIZATIONAL

5

4.50

120

CLIENTS

5

4.50

121

CO

5

4.50

122

SHOULD

5

4.50

123

NEED

5

4.50

124

FINANCE

5

4.50

125

COMMERCIAL

5

4.50

126

RESULTS

5

4.50

127

RESEARCH

5

4.50

128

SELLING

5

4.50

129

OF

5

4.50

 

 

Comments

 

1. Example phrases in the BEC not included or under-represented in the PMC:

business as usual, (PMC 0 - BEC 4 instances) and  business hours (PMC 1 - BEC 5 instances).

 

2. Any other business: This phrases is used more widely than in the PMC. In the PMC it is used (11 instances) solely in terms of agendas/meetings, i.e. AOB. In the BEC it is used in this manner and also to refer to other businesses, e.g. as a computer business or any other business.

 

3. On business: Again the prepositional phrase ‘on business’ has a much broader usage than is represented in the PMC. There it is used almost solely for COBUILD Sense 4, i.e. to be on business rather than pleasure (21 out of 22 instances of on business in the PMC sample). In the BEC (15 instances - 0.58% of sample) it is not used once in this sense but rather as connective preposition, e.g. VAT on business expenses, advising them on business plans.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



[1] High incidence of this cluster is due to 3 meetings in the BEC concerned with the sales and marketing of Business English books.