COMPETITION

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘competition’ was the three hundred and first most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

bec freq.

bec.lst %

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

301

COMPETITION

254

0.02

193

-

94.6

0.000000

 

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: Two groups identified, though one of them small.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 254 & %

example

toughness of competition

24 - 9.44%

unbridled competition

fierce competition

aggressive competition

object of competition

7 - 2.75%

business competition

chip competition

 

Right: No distinct groups found, but see the colligation section below for examples of prepositional usage.

 

 

c) Three-word clusters

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

competition for the

23

2

for the future

18

3

competition in the

11

4

the future is

11

5

future is different

7

6

is competition to

7

7

foreshorten migration paths

5

8

foresight and intellectual

5

9

to foreshorten migration

5

10

and intellectual leadership

4

11

for the present

4

12

from the competition

4

13

karel van miert

4

14

of competition for

4

15

of competition from

4

16

rules of competition

4

17

stages of competition

4

18

the rules of

4

 

d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

e) Colligation

 

COBUILD  Sense 2 (the people you are competing with - the competition)

9 instances - 3.54% of sample

Patterns: Singular noun - the

More differentiation from the competition is needed, is required in these new markets

 

COBUILD Sense 3 (firms competing for business - the state of competition)

232 instances - 91.33% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun

competition for market position, However, it faces competition from Volkswagen

 

COBUILD Sense 4 (the goods a rival is selling)

9 instances - 3.54% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun

the company is facing some chip competition

 

COBUILD Sense 5 (a competition)

4 instances - 1.57% of sample

Patterns: Variable noun

every consumer will be entitled to enter a competition

 

 

 

 

Other patterns:

 

i) Prepositional usage: (these show who/what are competing):

30 instances - 11.81% of sample

competition + among, competition + between, competition + from, competition + with

competition among phone companies,  competition between firms, competition from its own rival, competition with rival Fuji

-includes one example of where the competition is: competition from abroad

 

ii) competition + for: (these show what is being competed for):

competition for skilled employees, competition for the future

37 instances - 14.56% of sample

 

iii) noun + of + competition:

32 instances - 12.59% of sample

the next phase of competition, the rules of competition, three stages of competition

 

f) Associates

 

The word ‘competition’ was key in 7 files. The only associate found was ‘competition’ itself.