DEVELOPMENT

 

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘development’ was the one hundred and eighty-eighth most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

bec freq.

bec.lst %

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

188

DEVELOPMENT

557

0.05

509

0.03

144.4

0.000000

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: Three main groups identified, though the second group is here split into positive, negative and neutral nature of development. In the what is being developed category the collocates are virtually all either directly to do with business, product, export, industrial, or business related, administration, systems development.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 517 & %

example

what is being developed

182 - 35.2%

business development

economic development

competency development

product development

nature of development

(positive)

30 - 5.8%

value-enhancing development

major development

nature of development

(negative)

1 - 0.19%

slow development

nature of development

(neutral)

22 - 4.25%

our own development

further development

where development is taking place

14 - 2.12%

Asian development

in-house development

 

Right: Two groups identified.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ & %

example

people & groups of people

32 - 6.18%

development director

development engineer

institutions/companies

18 - 3.48%

development bank

development centre

 

 

c) Three-word clusters

 

N

cluster

Freq.

2

research and development

36

3

development of the

20

4

in the development

16

5

and development of

12

6

training and development

8

7

and the development

7

8

the export development

7

9

electrolux rapid development

6

10

export development counsellors

6

11

to the development

6

12

century leaders of

5

13

contribute to the

5

14

development of a

5

15

in research and

5

16

installation and servicing

5

17

the development and

5

18

accelerated development for

4

19

and development activities

4

20

development for #st

4

21

development of data

4

22

development of new

4

23

electrolux electrolux rapid

4

24

for #st century

4

25

for the development

4

26

learning and development

4

27

new product development

4

28

of its development

4

29

product development and

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

 

e) Colligation

 

COBUILD Sense 1 (gradual growth or formation of something)

172 instances - 33.26% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun (often noun + of + noun)

The development of the global business practitioner

 

COBUILD Sense 2 (growth or expansion of company/organisation)

138 instances - 26.69 % of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun - often with of

future development of the firm

 

COBUILD Sense 3 (the process of making a design better or more advanced)

193 instances - 37.33% of sample

Patterns: Variable noun

product development, the development of the new engines, applications development

 

COBUILD Sense 4 (making an area of land more useful/profitable)

11 instances - 2.12% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun

regional development funding

 

 

COBUILD Sense 5 ( a recently happened event likely to affect the present)

2 instances - 0.38% of sample

Patterns: Count noun

A recent development is the merging of S&H with ...

 

COBUILD Sense 6 (an area of houses)

1 instance - 0.19% of sample

Patterns: Count noun

property development

 

Other patterns:

 

i) noun (group) + and + development:

research and development, resale and development, learning and development

81 instances - 15.66% of sample

 

ii) development + and + activity(concrete nouns)

development and integration, development and planning,  career development and company benefits

30 instances - 5.8% of sample

 

iii) development + of (referring to people/company/products/time)

development of capital markets, development of our employees, development of all our staff

91 instances - 17.6% of sample

 

iv) the + development + of (referring to people/company/products/time)

the development of professional systems, the development of local banking

45 instances - 8.7% of sample

 

v) A strong tendency to be part of compound nouns. Most are pre-modified:

e.g. sustainable development, product development, business development

But also post-modified:

e.g. development needs, development plan, development projects

 

 

f) Associates

 

N

WORD

NO. OF FILES

AS %

1

DEVELOPMENT

13

100.00

2

BUSINESS

8

61.54

3

MANAGEMENT

6

46.15

4

SYSTEMS

6

46.15

5

EXECUTIVE

6

46.15