INVESTMENT

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘investment’ was the twenty-sixth most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

bec freq.

bec.lst %

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

26

INVESTMENT

577

0.06

185

-

546.2

0.000000

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: Five groups identified.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 454 & %

example

size of investment

23 - 5.06%

The multi-million dollar investment

a $172 million dollar investment

type of investment

(in what)

26 - 5.72%

R&D investment

return on marketing investment

time

10 - 2.2%

long-term investment

annual investment

type of investment

(nature of investment)

58 - 12.77%

accrued investment

alternative investment

returns on the investment

20 - 4.4%

a faster return on investment

a high return on investment

 

Right: Four groups were identified. It is interesting to note that the result of investment category consisted almost entirely of positive results (95.5%). There were only 2 instances of negative results (investment losses) which represents only 4.5% of examples found in the results of investments sample.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 454 & %

example

people & groups of people

29 - 6.38%

investment guru

Chief  Investment Officer

investment banker

institutions/companies

46 - 10.13%

investment firm

investment authorities

investment company

activities

35 - 7.7%

investment banking

investment management

results of investment

44 - 9.69%

investment yield

investment gains

investment income

c) Three-word clusters

 

n

cluster

freq.

1

realized investment gains

15

2

return on investment

10

3

investment in the

9

4

chief investment officer

8

5

the investment in

8

6

investment in new

7

7

of the investment

7

8

investment income #

6

9

an investment bank

5

10

gains were #

5

11

investment gains were

5

12

investment income increased

5

13

of inward investment

5

14

of return on

5

15

on the investment

5

16

the investment community

5

17

and investment income

4

18

and the investment

4

19

gains # #

4

20

income increased #

4

21

investment gains #

4

22

investment income was

4

23

its investment in

4

24

research and development

4

25

return on the

4

26

the company's investment

4

27

the incremental investment

4


d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

e) Colligation

 

COBUILD Sense 1 (the activity of investing money)

384 instances - 84.58% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun usually with supplementary information (often in-noun)

a reduction in businesses reporting a fall in investment

 

COBUILD Sense 2 (the amount of money you invest or what you invest in)

65 instances - 14.31% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun usually with supplementary information

the £25k investment in the project

 

COBUILD Sense 4 (spending time or effort to make things good)

5 instances - 1.1% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun (usually noun-of-noun)

investment in the upbringing of children

investment in the highest quality people

 

Other Patterns:

 

i) Prepositional collocation to denote to the what/where and who of the investment:

 

what/where:

in + what/where : investment in plant and machinery, investment in new markets

52 occurrences in sample (11.45% of examples).

 

who:

by + person/company: investment by minority shareholders, investment by British companies

7 occurrences in sample (1.54% of examples).

 

There was also one example of by + percentage value: has slashed overseas investment by 30pc. Here though the by clearly collocates with slashed and not investment.

 

ii) A tendency can be noted that ‘investment’ forms part of three-word noun phrases:

return on investment, accrued investment income, long-term investment, realized investment gains, realized investment losses

 

f) Associates

 

N

WORD

NO. OF FILES

AS %

1

INVESTMENT

15

100.00

2

COMPANIES

6

40.00

3

BUSINESS

6

40.00

4

GROWTH

5

33.33

5

MILLION

5

33.33

6

FINANCIAL

5

33.33

7

COMPANY

5

33.33

8

GROUP

5

33.33