PRODUCTION

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘production’ was the two hundred and fourth most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

bec freq.

bec.lst %

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

204

PRODUCTION

267

0.03

167

-

133.5

0.000000

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Basically two groups identified here, though the second group (nature of production) has been split into positive, negative and neutral. Combined, there are 45 instances in this second group, constituting 17.11% of the sample.

 

Left: Four groups identified.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 263 & %

example

products

(what is produced)

21 - 7.98%

airplane production

cement production

component production

nature of production

(positive)

6 - 2.28%

flexible production

streamlined production

nature of production

(negative)

10 - 3.8%

defective production

inefficient production

nature of production

(neutral)

29 - 11.02%

automated production

industrial production

 

Right:

 

No clear groups identified but see colligation section below.

 

c) Three-word clusters

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

the production of

10

2

in the production

7

3

production and installation

7

4

cost of production

6

5

installation and servicing

6

6

at # prices

4

7

at standard hours

4

8

consumables the #

4

9

for quality assurance

4

10

for the production

4

11

hours less budget

4

12

production at standard

4

13

production valued at

4

14

quality assurance in

4

15

standard hours less

4

16

the # budget

4

17

valued at #

4

 

 

d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

e) Colligation

 

COBUILD Sense 1 (process of production)

180 instances - 68.44% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun (often into)

diesel injection system will not be put into production for Volkswagen

Companyname can now plan production to ensure energy intensive operation

 

COBUILD Sense 2 (production = output)

75 instances - 28.51% of sample

Patterns: Uncount noun

Car sales and production are set to fall next year

OPEC’s decision to boost oil production by 10 per cent

 

COBUILD Sense 5 ( a stage production)

1 instance - 0.38% of sample

Patterns: Count noun

D’Oyly Carte was offered the gift of a co-production with Birmingham ...

 

Other COBUILD definitions:

production line: 7 instances - 2.66% of sample

 

Other patterns:

 

i) production + of + products/services

production of statutory accounts, production of instant photographs

14 instances - 5.23% of sample

 

ii) production + plural nouns

production activities, production facilities, production costs, production processes

40 instances - 15.2% of sample

 

f) Associates

 

The word ‘production’ was key in 9 files. The only associate > =5 was ‘production’ itself.

 

Comments

 

 

1. In COBUILD,  Sense 3 of ‘production’ is given as the results of a natural process  with a pattern of production of. In this sample there are 14 instances - of production of. These examples, however, refer to business rather than natural processes, e.g. production of business, production of instant photographs for customers. The data here, therefore, whilst matching the typical patterning shown by COBUILD, does not match it semantically.