STAFF

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘staff’ was the six hundred and sixty-eighth most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

Freq.

bec.lst %

Freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

668

STAFF

419

0.04

535

0.03

37.9

0.000000

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: Four groups discerned.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/388 & %

example

numbers, amounts or % of staff

44 - 11.34 %

nearly 11,000 staff

... employs 62 staff ....

the vast majority of staff

twenty per cent of the staff

type of staff (titles, functions, company)

55- 14.17%

administration staff

strategic planning staff

status of staff

21 - 5.41%

full time permanent member of staff

senior staff

junior staff

core staff

positive

12 - 3.09%

proven staff

the right staff

highly skilled staff

 

Right: No groups identified but see colligation section below.

 

 

c) Three-word clusters

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

member of staff

8

2

of the staff

8

3

all the staff

6

4

to the staff

6

5

available to staff

5

6

staff and the

5

7

staff forum #

5

8

the staff and

5

9

a staff of

4

10

from the junior

4

11

in the hotel

4

12

management and staff

4

13

of staff and

4

14

staff # #

4

15

staff at the

4

16

staff in the

4

17

the junior staff

4

18

the staff who

4

 

d) Macro-generic distribution

 

 

e) Colligation

 

COBUILD Sense 1 (people who work for an organisation)

331 instances - 85.3% of sample

Patterns: Count noun

member of staff, our friendly helpful staff are waiting for your call

 

COBUILD Sense 2 (people part of a particular staff - correlates to semantic prosody category 2 above)

55 instances - 14.17% of sample

Patterns: Plural noun

IT staff, corporate management resources staff

 

COBUILD Sense 3 (verb - to staff an organisation)

2 instances - 0.51% of sample

Patterns: most commonly passive (is staffed, was staffed, but this item is here excluded, only the infinitive form found)

how to staff, staff technical specialists to address the unique ...

 

Other patterns:

 

i) Overwhelmingly used as a noun rather than a verb :

386 instances - out of 388, 99.48% of sample.

 

ii) Used in both pre- and post-modified compound nouns/noun phrases:

agency staff, service staff, staff discount, staff forum, staff levels, staff performance, staff recruiting, staff training

 

iii) Staff of + number:

5 instances - 1.28% of sample

a staff of just 150 inspectors

 

iv) prepositional use: (says where the staff works)

18 instances - 4.63% of sample

staff at the Samsung Group, staff from other countries, staff in the hotel, staff of the UK’s top organizations

 

v) noun + of + staff:

27 instances - 6.95% of sample

member of staff, number of staff, calibre of staff, development of staff, the drift of staff away

 

f) Associates

 

N

WORD

NO. OF FILES

AS %

1

STAFF

10

100.00

2

TRAINING

5

50.00