Chapter 8       Overview of Results

 

8.1 Introduction

 

In this chapter the most important  results of the analyses carried out on both the BEC and the PMC are presented. They show that both hypotheses under analysis are proved to be correct - lexis central to and indicative of Business English is presented, and key differences between the Business English lexis of published materials and the Business English found in the BEC are given. The amount of data generated by the corpora, however, has proved so vast that it is only possible in this chapter to give an overview and brief comments on the key results (a fuller, more detailed presentation and interpretation of the results is presented in Chapter 9). In each case, the place where the full results are stored is indicated, along with reference to the section of Chapter 9 where each result is dealt with in detail. The results of this thesis are stored in two places: in the Appendices in Vol. II, and on the CD ROM attached to this thesis inside the back cover.

 

This chapter, then, serves as an overview - showing examples of key results - and a guide - it designates the place where results can be found. The presentation of the results here is divided into two main sections: firstly, those results gained from analysis of the BEC, and secondly, those results gained from the PMC.

 

8.2 Analysis of the BEC

 

8.2.1 General Statistics of the BEC

 

Here the overall statistics for the BEC are presented using the version of the BEC categorised by macro-genres.

 

TABLE XV: GENERAL STATISTICS OF THE BEC

 

Bytes

6 496 472

Tokens (words)

1 023 021

Types (types of words)

28 232

Type/Token Ratio

2.76

Standardised Type/Token (as %)

40.01

Average word length

4.66

Sentences

43 473

Sentence length

17.18

Standard sentence length

14.75

Paragraphs

35 283

Paragraph length

28.49

Standard paragraph length

91.98

Headings

0

Heading length

 

Standard heading length

 

1-letter words

42 544

2-letter words

179 256

3-letter words

204 226

4-letter words

173 401

5-letter words

105 337

6-letter words

79 175

7-letter words

75 651

8-letter words

57 641

9-letter words

43 368

10-letter words

28 172

11-letter words

17 737

12-letter words

8 522

13-letter words

5 148

14(+)-letter words

1 902

 

 

8.2.2 BEC frequency list unlemmatised/unedited

 

This can be found in the CD ROM.

 

 

8.2.3 BEC frequency list lemmatised

 

Here the top 100 most frequent lemmas are shown.  A list of the top 1,000 lemmas can be found in Appendix 1 in Vol. II and on the CD ROM. The frequency list below shows that in Business English, the most frequent words are still general, non-business words, with only seven words in the top 100 that could be considered business-related - company, business, market, work, service, product and price. This is discussed in full in Section 9.3.1 in the next chapter. It will also be noted that the word yeah has been added to the lemma yes. This was done in an attempt to give a true frequency value to yes in comparison to no, which, unlike yes,  did not take any other lexical form in the corpus.

 

TABLE: XVI: BEC LEMMATISED FREQUENCY LIST (TOP 100 LEMMAS)

 

N

Word

BEC freq.

BEC %

Lemmas

1

THE

52 213

5.10

 

2

BE

34 883

3.41

am(286),are(6959),is(11337),was(3893),

were(1525),being(760),been(2148),’m(149)

3

TO

29 495

2.88

 

4

AND

26 429

2.58

 

5

OF

25 614

2.50

 

6

A

23 872

2.33

an(3170)

7

IN

18 293

1.79

 

8

THAT

13 069

1.28

those(821)

9

HAVE

10 945

1.07

has(2716),having(383),had(1677)

10

FOR

10 415

1.02

 

11

YOU

10 133

0.99

 

12

IT

8 902

0.87

 

13

I

8 534

0.83

 

14

ON

7 781

0.76

 

15

WE

7 492

0.73

 

16

WITH

6 754

0.66

 

17

THIS

6 468

0.63

these(1306)

18

AS

6 241

0.61

 

19

DO

5 298

0.52

does(581),doing(567),did(573),done(471)

20

AT

4 998

0.49

 

21

OR

4 834

0.47

 

22

BUT

4 471

0.44

buts(1)

23

WILL

4 335

0.42

 

24

THEY

4 221

0.41

 

25

YES

4 181

0.41

yeah(3308)

26

FROM

4 180

0.41

 

27

BY

4 179

0.41

 

28

NOT

4 074

0.40

 

29

SO

4 012

0.39

 

30

GET

3 622

0.35

gets(103),getting(323),got(1587),gotten(10)

31

ALL

3 352

0.33

 

32

IF

3 339

0.33

 

33

WHICH

3 112

0.30

 

34

WHAT

3 074

0.30

 

35

GO

3 060

0.30

goes(178),going(1533),went(184),gone(137)

36

IT'S

2 977

0.29

 

37

CAN

2 947

0.29

 

38

COMPANY

2 934

0.29

companies(1092)

39

YEAR

2 874

0.28

years(1058)

40

SAY

2 851

0.28

says(489),saying(336),said(923)

41

BUSINESS

2 837

0.28

businesses(287)

42

ONE

2 761

0.27

ones(131)

43

THERE

2 656

0.26

 

44

WOULD

2 478

0.24

 

45

ERM

2 443

0.24

 

46

KNOW

2 439

0.24

knows(87),knowing(36),knew(67),known(132)

47

THINK

2 428

0.24

thinks(46),thinking(155),thought(272)

48

YOUR

2 409

0.24

 

49

MORE

2 390

0.23

 

50

UP

2 365

0.23

ups(44)

51

WELL

2 352

0.23

 

52

NO

2 349

0.23

nos(6)

53

OUR

2 342

0.23

 

54

MARKET

2 336

0.23

markets(469),marketing(469),marketed(10)

55

MAKE

2 333

0.23

makes(221),making(371),made(714)

56

WORK

2 234

0.22

works(226),worked(134),working(680)

57

ABOUT

2 222

0.22

 

58

RIGHT

2 209

0.22

rights(104),righted(1)

59

JUST

2 145

0.21

 

60

OUT

2 089

0.20

 

61

THEIR

2 084

0.20

 

62

ITS

2 077

0.20

 

63

OTHER

1 959

0.19

others(181)

64

THAT'S

1 938

0.19

 

65

TIME

1 917

0.19

times(228),timing(39),timed(5)

66

BECAUSE

1 916

0.19

 

67

ANY

1 913

0.19

 

68

HE

1 806

0.18

 

69

USE

1 746

0.17

uses(57),using(307),used(572)

70

NEW

1 730

0.17

newer(8),newest(4)

71

THEM

1 711

0.17

 

72

PEOPLE

1 701

0.17

peoples(8)

73

NOW

1 669

0.16

 

74

THEN

1 665

0.16

 

75

VERY

1 642

0.16

 

76

SOME

1 612

0.16

 

77

WHEN

1 578

0.15

 

78

LIKE

1 555

0.15

likes(20),liking(1),liked(19)

79

TAKE

1 543

0.15

takes(106),taking(261),took(156),taken(236)

80

THAN

1 528

0.15

 

81

MEAN

1 524

0.15

means(319),meaning(22),meant(46)

82

NEED

1 493

0.15

needs(317),needing(15),needed(154)

83

ALSO

1 476

0.14

 

84

SERVICE

1 461

0.14

services(641),servicing(43),serviced(5)

85

COME

1 413

0.14

comes(207),coming(330),came(184)

86

WHO

1 404

0.14

 

87

GOOD

1 386

0.14

goods(391)

88

SHOULD

1 386

0.14

 

89

PRODUCT

1 385

0.14

products(644)

90

SEE

1 360

0.13

sees(23),seeing(66),sawn(2),saw(89),seen(225)

91

HOW

1 351

0.13

 

92

TWO

1 318

0.13

twos(9)

93

DON'T

1 315

0.13

 

94

PRICE

1 302

0.13

prices(417),pricing(69),priced(20)

95

US

1 300

0.13

 

96

MAY

1 294

0.13

 

97

WANT

1 290

0.13

wants(148),wanting(24),wanted(184)

98

INTO

1 276

0.12

 

99

THING

1 243

0.12

things(693)

100

SYSTEM

1 231

0.12

systems(482)

 

 

8.2.4 BEC Key words

 

a) Positive Key Words: Here the BEC top 100 positive key words are presented. Positive key words are those that appear in the BEC corpus more frequently than in general English (in the BNC), to a statistically significant level (Log Likelihood p = 0.000001). The full list of positive key words can be found in Appendix 2 in Vol. II and on the CD ROM. This list contrasts sharply with the BEC frequency list above. There is a much greater concentration of pure business-related lexis, e.g. business, company, market and customer, and also lexis that could be intuitively expected to be found in a Business English environment, e.g. order, contract, mail and rate. A full discussion on this is found in Chapter 9, Section 9.3.1.2. The key word lists show the words in order of keyness, frequency in the smaller corpus (in this case the BEC), percentage of frequency in the smaller corpus, frequency and percentage in the larger corpus (in this case the BNC) and finally, the keyness value, expressed as a Log Likelihood score.

 

TABLE XVII: BEC POSITIVE KEY WORDS (TOP 100)

 

N

Word

BEC Freq.

BEC %

BNC Freq.

BNC %

Keyness

Log L.

1

BUSINESS

2 837

0.28

542

0.03

3 557.7

2

COMPANY

2 934

0.29

782

0.04

3 118.6

3

MARKET

2 336

0.23

831

0.04

2 056.1

4

CUSTOMER

1 199

0.12

147

 

1 763.0

5

OK

897

0.09

38

 

1 635.1

6

PRODUCT

1 385

0.14

412

0.02

1 377.2

7

SALE

1 210

0.12

343

0.02

1 239.4

8

FAX

613

0.06

32

 

1 085.0

9

MANAGEMENT

973

0.10

279

0.01

989.6

10

PRICE

1 302

0.13

586

0.03

941.5

11

FINANCIAL

780

0.08

237

0.01

765.0

12

BANK

940

0.09

379

0.02

749.0

13

BILLION

515

0.05

67

 

743.4

14

SERVICE

1 461

0.14

916

0.05

728.7

15

STOCK

889

0.09

350

0.02

722.5

16

ORDER

1 224

0.12

681

0.03

709.0

17

EXECUTIVE

529

0.05

86

 

707.3

18

CONTRACT

656

0.06

183

 

678.3

19

CLIENT

535

0.05

126

 

607.4

20

MAIL

380

0.04

34

 

607.2

21

CONTRACTOR

326

0.03

16

 

582.3

22

WILL

4 335

0.42

5 038

0.26

572.4

23

MANAGER

742

0.07

317

0.02

562.4

24

PER

1 014

0.10

585

0.03

562.4

25

SELLER

298

0.03

12

 

546.6

26

INVESTMENT

577

0.06

185

 

546.2

27

SHARE

1 148

0.11

762

0.04

528.8

28

INTERNET

249

0.02

1

 

521.0

29

COST

1 127

0.11

747

0.04

520.2

30

TO

29 495

2.88

47 851

2.44

514.5

31

DATE

782

0.08

389

0.02

512.3

32

GLOBAL

324

0.03

34

 

497.6

33

PROFIT

799

0.08

429

0.02

482.0

34

SELL

789

0.08

419

0.02

481.8

35

REGISTER

399

0.04

86

 

473.3

36

PROJECT

642

0.06

283

0.01

473.1

37

PERFORMANCE

507

0.05

175

 

455.8

38

YEAR

2 874

0.28

3 184

0.16

445.4

39

INTERNATIONAL

606

0.06

269

0.01

443.7

40

ITS

2 077

0.20

2 085

0.11

428.5

41

MILLION

789

0.08

473

0.02

417.1

42

CORPORATE

277

0.03

33

 

410.6

43

RATE

803

0.08

496

0.03

408.4

44

BUYER

292

0.03

42

 

407.9

45

CREDIT

392

0.04

110

 

403.8

46

INDUSTRY

712

0.07

404

0.02

402.8

47

SUPPLIER

288

0.03

44

 

393.9

48

TECHNOLOGY

445

0.04

157

 

393.7

49

BUDGET

437

0.04

152

 

390.7

50

SHALL

803

0.08

515

0.03

388.2

51

COPY

430

0.04

152

 

379.9

52

ACCOUNT

859

0.08

593

0.03

373.4

53

OUR

2 342

0.23

2 577

0.13

370.8

54

DISTRIBUTOR

218

0.02

16

 

363.5

55

DELIVERY

291

0.03

56

 

363.4

56

CASH

384

0.04

124

 

361.7

57

WE

7 492

0.73

10 822

0.55

349.7

58

COMPANY'S

263

0.03

45

 

344.7

59

AGREEMENT

470

0.05

210

0.01

342.0

60

GROUP

1 153

0.11

991

0.05

341.0

61

OFFER

733

0.07

491

0.03

333.1

62

GROWTH

475

0.05

224

0.01

328.3

63

DIRECTOR

541

0.05

289

0.01

328.2

64

INFORMATION

835

0.08

622

0.03

321.6

65

PROPERTY

400

0.04

162

 

317.5

66

NETWORK

390

0.04

156

 

312.8

67

DIGITAL

185

0.02

13

 

311.1

68

SHAREHOLDER

286

0.03

73

 

311.1

69

TEL

216

0.02

29

 

308.7

70

FOR

10 415

1.02

15 996

0.82

307.3

71

TERM

887

0.09

703

0.04

306.7

72

INVESTOR

248

0.02

51

 

300.7

73

REVIEW

380

0.04

155

 

299.8

74

EMPLOYEE

307

0.03

94

 

299.5

75

TARGET

285

0.03

79

 

295.7

76

PC

210

0.02

30

 

294.0

77

INCREASE

758

0.07

566

0.03

290.8

78

INVOICE

182

0.02

17

 

287.8

79

COM

160

0.02

8

 

285.0

80

INCLUDE

934

0.09

791

0.04

284.6

81

REGARD

477

0.05

259

0.01

284.1

82

PAYMENT

321

0.03

115

 

280.8

83

TAX

629

0.06

427

0.02

280.3

84

TRADE

696

0.07

509

0.03

276.3

85

OR

4 834

0.47

6 757

0.34

276.3

86

OFFICE

651

0.06

461

0.02

272.1

87

TELEPHONE

365

0.04

159

 

271.8

88

ENGINEER

368

0.04

163

 

269.9

89

MEETING

739

0.07

575

0.03

264.1

90

FIRM

466

0.05

265

0.01

262.9

91

FINANCE

298

0.03

117

 

242.7

92

NEW

1 730

0.17

1 995

0.10

234.3

93

SYSTEM

1 231

0.12

1 273

0.06

234.1

94

FOCUS

258

0.03

89

 

232.0

95

RECEIVE

534

0.05

369

0.02

231.7

96

PURCHASE

289

0.03

117

 

229.4

97

EXPENSE

236

0.02

73

 

228.7

98

TEAM

498

0.05

334

0.02

225.9

99

STRATEGY

295

0.03

125

 

225.2

100

STRATEGIC

203

0.02

50

 

225.1

 

b) Negative Key Words: Here the BEC top 100 negative key words are presented. Negative key words are those that appear in the BEC corpus less frequently than in general English to a statistically significant level (Log Likelihood p = 0.000001). The full list of negative key words can be found in Appendix 4 in Vol. II and on the CD ROM. The negative key word  list differs markedly from the positive key word list: there is little or no business-related lexis and the words are, for example, concerned with family (e.g. mum, child, dad), society (e.g. vote, church, police) and the home (e.g. garden, curtain). A clear divide is thus created between lexis of the business world - shown in the positive key words - and lexis of the non-business world - shown in these negative key words. This is discussed in full in Chapter 9, Section 9.3.2.2.

TABLE XVIII: BEC NEGATIVE KEY WORDS (TOP 100)

 

N

Word

BEC Freq.

BEC %

BNC Freq.

BNC %

Keyness

Log L.

1611

ER

1 198

0.12

9 750

0.50

3 199.9

1610

I

8 534

0.83

31 126

1.59

3 139.1

1609

SHE

337

0.03

5 899

0.30

3 057.0

1608

OH

475

0.05

5 938

0.30

2 620.4

1607

MM

60

 

3 480

0.18

2 444.0

1606

HE

1 806

0.18

10 232

0.52

2 287.4

1605

HER

259

0.03

3 940

0.20

1 919.9

1604

COS

7

 

1 739

0.09

1 384.3

1603

IT

8 902

0.87

26 079

1.33

1 287.5

1602

HIS

912

0.09

5 234

0.27

1 187.8

1601

OKAY

7

 

1 147

0.06

892.8

1600

YES

4 181

0.41

13 210

0.67

863.6

1599

MY

861

0.08

4 349

0.22

825.0

1598

SAY

2 851

0.28

9 573

0.49

760.5

1597

HIM

405

0.04

2 703

0.14

731.8

1596

YOU

10 133

0.99

26 331

1.34

714.8

1595

ME

978

0.10

4 209

0.21

606.6

1594

ONE

2 761

0.27

8 830

0.45

600.5

1593

NO

2 349

0.23

7 784

0.40

593.5

1592

GET

3 622

0.35

10 875

0.55

589.0

1591

GO

3 060

0.30

9 168

0.47

492.0

1590

AH

45

 

886

0.05

479.9

1589

MAN

201

0.02

1 538

0.08

476.7

1588

WELL

2 352

0.23

7 359

0.38

463.8

1587

GOD

31

 

784

0.04

461.2

1586

DON'T

1 315

0.13

4 741

0.24

459.2

1585

TWENTY

126

0.01

1 212

0.06

452.4

1584

LIKE

1 555

0.15

5 339

0.27

452.2

1583

MUM

6

 

602

0.03

451.0

1582

FORMULA

35

 

793

0.04

450.9

1581

SHE'S

111

0.01

1 088

0.06

411.6

1580

GONNA

112

0.01

1 086

0.06

407.7

1579

OOH

3

 

483

0.02

375.5

1578

TELL

419

0.04

2 059

0.10

373.9

1577

KNOW

2 439

0.24

7 231

0.37

371.9

1576

MOTHER

22

 

607

0.03

366.0

1575

SEE

1 360

0.13

4 543

0.23

354.6

1574

DIDN'T

324

0.03

1 724

0.09

352.8

1573

POUND

221

0.02

1 381

0.07

347.3

1572

CHILD

153

0.01

1 133

0.06

340.5

1571

THERE

2 656

0.26

7 607

0.39

338.1

1570

VOTE

73

 

804

0.04

328.7

1569

NIGHT

117

0.01

979

0.05

328.0

1568

TWO

1 318

0.13

4 348

0.22

326.4

1567

GARDEN

11

 

465

0.02

309.4

1566

CHURCH

8

 

440

0.02

306.3

1565

NICE

100

 

876

0.04

304.6

1564

TH

8

 

431

0.02

299.1

1563

DO

5 298

0.52

13 343

0.68

294.9

1562

CURTAIN

4

 

394

0.02

294.6

1561

ROUND

156

0.02

1 048

0.05

285.6

1560

COME

1 413

0.14

4 437

0.23

282.9

1559

JOAN

3

 

369

0.02

281.4

1558

HAIR

16

 

450

0.02

272.8

1557

THEN

1 665

0.16

4 999

0.25

270.0

1556

LORD

27

 

506

0.03

269.0

1555

BOY

25

 

483

0.02

259.8

1554

NA

6

 

367

0.02

259.5

1553

POLICE

23

 

468

0.02

256.5

1552

FATHER

17

 

432

0.02

254.5

1551

LEAVE

369

0.04

1 647

0.08

253.9

1550

EAT

34

 

519

0.03

253.1

1549

THIRTY

79

 

710

0.04

251.9

1548

I'M

930

0.09

3 136

0.16

251.7

1547

WHAT

3 074

0.30

8 171

0.42

250.8

1546

WHEN

1 578

0.15

4 688

0.24

242.8

1545

LOVE

62

 

625

0.03

241.1

1544

KING

27

 

465

0.02

239.0

1543

WATER

143

0.01

918

0.05

238.0

1542

FLOWER

3

 

316

0.02

237.8

1541

LITTLE

365

0.04

1 585

0.08

232.2

1540

HE'S

449

0.04

1 816

0.09

230.5

1539

HA

6

 

326

0.02

226.5

1538

FIVE

401

0.04

1 670

0.09

225.3

1537

NINETEEN

4

 

308

0.02

224.4

1536

EDWARD

6

 

322

0.02

223.3

1535

HOUSE

286

0.03

1 335

0.07

222.7

1534

GOTTA

4

 

303

0.02

220.3

1533

PUT

741

0.07

2 558

0.13

219.8

1532

FABRIC

9

 

336

0.02

218.0

1531

BED

36

 

475

0.02

215.5

1530

FOUR

381

0.04

1 583

0.08

212.6

1529

FLAT

34

 

460

0.02

211.5

1528

LOOK

1 197

0.12

3 658

0.19

211.3

1527

GIRL

49

 

525

0.03

210.9

1526

REMEMBER

124

0.01

804

0.04

210.8

1525

EYE

50

 

522

0.03

206.1

1524

I'D

129

0.01

807

0.04

203.2

1523

PLAY

158

0.02

901

0.05

202.5

1522

DOG

33

 

440

0.02

200.7

1521

FORTY

53

 

524

0.03

199.4

1520

NINE

100

 

700

0.04

199.0

1519

DAD

13

 

336

0.02

198.9

1518

FIFTY

57

 

539

0.03

198.7

1517

EH

4

 

276

0.01

198.4

1516

WOMAN

121

0.01

768

0.04

196.6

1515

ERM

2 443

0.24

6 471

0.33

194.6

1514

I'VE

571

0.06

2 042

0.10

193.4

1513

SEAT

33

 

427

0.02

191.7

1512

DOWN

749

0.07

2 487

0.13

190.4

1511

OLD

288

0.03

1 263

0.06

188.5

 

 

8.2.5 Grammatical categorisation of BEC positive key words

 

This list can be found in Appendix 2 in Vol. II.  It shows the positive key words of the BEC categorised by word class as defined by Ljung (1990): noun, verb, adjective, noun/verb, noun/adjective, verb/adjective, noun/verb/adjective and -ly adverbs. This is discussed in Chapter 9, Section 9.3.2.1.

 

8.2.6 Semantic categorisation of BEC positive key words

 

This categorisation can be found in Appendix 3 in Vol. II and the categorisation is done separately for the four largest word classes - noun, verb, adjective, noun/verb. This is discussed in full in Chapter 9, Section 9.3.2.1.

 

8.2.7 Grammatical categorisation of BEC negative key word list

 

This list can be found in Appendix 4 in Vol. II. It shows the negative key words of the BEC categorised by word class as defined by Ljung (1990): noun, verb, adjective, noun/verb, noun/adjective, verb/adjective, noun/verb/adjective and -ly adverbs. This is discussed in Chapter 9, Section 9.3.2.2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.2.8 Semantic categorisation of BEC negative key words

 

This categorisation can be found in Appendix 5 in Vol. II and the categorisation is done separately for the four largest word classes - noun, verb, adjective, noun/verb. This is discussed in full in Chapter 9, Section 9.3.2.2.

 

8.2.9 Analysis of 50 key words from the BEC

 

It was noted in the previous chapter (Step 5 a-h), how fifty key words from the BEC were selected and subjected to various forms of analysis. These analyses are shown in full in Appendix 6 in Vol. II and a detailed analysis of these words forms a major part of Chapter 9 (Section 9.3.3 to 9.3.7), where each section is explained and interpreted. However, an example of one of the fifty words - business - is presented here. In the example, several different kinds of analysis are shown:

a) Keyness - how key the key word is.

b) Semantic prosody - what lexical/semantic sets the word typically collocates with - collocating groups are shown both to the left of the main word and to the right.

c) 3-word clusters - typical 3-word clusters the word is found in or near.

d) Macro-generic distribution - the range of use of the word across the macro-genres of the BEC shown using the Dispersion Plot function of WordSmith.

e) Colligation - how the word typically behaves grammatically, and what grammatical patterning/meaning correlations there are, using the COBUILD (1995) dictionary as reference.

f) Associates - key words that co-occur with the main word in a number of texts to a statistically significant level.

g) Comments - any comments to be made on the above analyses.

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLE WORD: ‘BUSINESS’

 

a) Keyness

 

The lemma ‘business’ was the most significant key word in the BEC corpus.

 

N

Word

bec freq.

bec lst %

bnc freq.

bnc.lst %

Keyness

P

1

BUSINESS

2,837

0.28

542

0.03

3,557.8

0.000000

 

b) Semantic Prosody

 

Left: A total of 7 groups were identified. However, the positive and negative groups are small and are shown here to contrast positive and negative usage with the word.

 

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 2,551& %

example

where business takes place

(place)

56  - 2.19%

Indian business

UK business

where business takes place

(macro-level demarcation)

123 - 4.82%

international

world-wide business

overseas business

line of business

222 - 9.86%

telecoms business

hairdressing business

contract hire business

nature of business

(characteristics)

124 - 4.86%

core business

family business

daily business

money/size of business

67 - 2.62%

a high-yield business

big business

small business

positive adjectives

50- 1.96%

successful business

sound business

strong business

negative adjectives

7 - 0.27%

unviable business

cut-throat business

boring business

 

Right: Four groups identified.

 

semantic prosody

frequency/ 2,551& %

example

people and groups of people

145 - 5.68%

business agents

business analyst

business controller

business activities

135 - 5.29 %

business administration

business analysis

business development

institutions, organisations  and companies

129 - 5.05%

business conglomerates

business school

the business press

macro-level demarcation

89 - 3.48%

business area

business sector

business segment

 

 

c) Three-word clusters

 

N

cluster

Freq.

1

of the business

85

2

in the business

63

3

to the business

31

4

the business and

29

5

the business is

29

6

the business English

24

7

for the business

20

8

business and the

19

9

in international business

18

10

the institute for

18

11

a business plan

17

12

for global business

17

13

institute for global

17

14

of business administration

17

15

the business of

16

16

the business plan

14

17

college of business

13

18

and the business

12

19

business English list

12

20

on the business

12

21

the business community

12

22

business areas and

11

23

the business link

11

24

as a business

10

25

credits international business

10

26

for your business

10

27

of a business

10

28

of business and

10

29

of our business

9

30

that your business

9

31

with the business

9

32

about the business

8

33

any other business

8

34

business to business

8

35

out of business

8

36

to do business

8

37

a new business

7

38

and international business

7

39

business in the

7

40

business is not

7

41

from the business

7

42

in a business

7

43

into the business

7

44

of business English

7

45

of its business

7

46

out of the

7

47

the business to

7

48

the business unit

7

49

the business world

7

50

the local business

7

51

your business is

7

52

a business and

6

53

business and computing

6

54

business as a

6

55

business at the

6

56

business of the

6

57

business on the

6

58

business unit managers

6

59

in this business

6

60

of doing business

6

61

of your business

6

62

ordinary course of

6

63

part of the

6

64

run the business

6

65

some of the

6

66

the business at

6

67

the business will

6

68

the international business

6

69

the main business

6

70

the ordinary course

6

71

when the business

6

72

within the business

6

73

your business and

6

74

a business to

5

75

a lot of

5

76

an international business

5

77

as the business

5

78

as well as

5

79

at the business

5

80

business English and

5

81

business English customers

5

82

business English experts

5

83

business link and

5

84

develop the business

5

85

do business with

5

86

English list is

5

87

for new business

5

88

Harvard business review

5

89

Harvard business school

5

90

have a business

5

91

if the business

5

92

in any business

5

93

in order to

5

94

intermediate business English

5

95

international business concentration

5

96

it is a

5

97

lot of business

5

98

nature of the

5

99

new business opportunities

5

100

start a business

5

101

that the business

5

102

the business as

5

103

the business press

5

104

the business that

5

105

the business was

5

106

the college of

5

107

the company's business

5

108

the core business

5

109

the nature of

5

110

the world business

5

111

to start a

5

112

today's business express

5

113

type of business

5

114

what the business

5

115

which is the

5

116

within  business

5

117

you have a

5

118

a business case

4

119

a business link

4

120

a business that

4

121

a number of

4

122

all the business

4

123

and business areas

4

124

as a whole

4

125

at the close

4

126

at the moment

4

127

been in the

4

128

business as usual

4

129

business development manager

4

130

business from the

4

131

business is going

4

132

business is the

4

133

business law #

4

134

business link placename

4

135

business plan is

4

136