Table of Contents

 

 

 

 

Acknowledgements

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1

Summary of the Research

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2

Statement of the Problem and Overview

 

 

2.1

Introduction

 

 

2.1

The hypotheses and research questions

 

 

2.3

Method

 

 

2.4

Methodological overview

 

 

2.5

Aims of the research

 

 

2.6

Overview of the thesis

 

 

2.7

Concrete questions - concrete answers

 

 

 

 

Chapter 3

A Review of the Literature of Business English

 

 

3.1

Introduction and overview

 

 

3.2

The development of ESP

 

 

3.2.1

The origins of ESP until 1945

 

 

3.2.2

Post-war ESP

 

 

3.2.3

Stage 1: Register Analysis

 

 

3.2.4

Later developments in Register Analysis

 

 

3.2.5

Stage 2: Discourse or Rhetorical Analysis

 

 

3.2.6

Later Developments in Discourse Analysis: Genre Analysis

 

 

3.2.7

Stage 3: Needs Analysis

 

 

3.2.8

Later Developments in Needs Analysis

 

 

3.2.9

Stage 4: Skills and Strategies

 

 

3.2.10

Stage 5: The Learning-Centred Approach

 

 

3.2.11

Stage 6: ESP today

 

 

3.3.12

Summary: definitions of ESP

 

 

3.3

Business English in an ESP context

 

 

 

 

 

 

A: Studies into What Business Language is

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.4

Pickett and beyond

 

 

3.4.1

Introduction: initial comments on the nature of Business English

 

 

3.4.2

Pickett and the ‘poetics’ of the business ‘ergolect’

 

 

3.4.3

Pickett: a summary

 

 

3.5

Pickett’s Concept 1: Poetics and the nature of  ‘technical’ language

 

 

3.5.1

The notions of sub-technical language and layering outside the field of Business English

 

 

3.5.2

The notion of layering in the field of Business English

 

 

3.5.3

Discussion

 

 

3.6

Pickett’s Concept 2: The ‘Gamut’ - the ergolect of business

 

 

3.6.1

Discourse

 

 

3.6.1.1

Cohesion

 

 

3.6.1.2

Strategies

 

 

3.6.2

Culture

 

 

3.6.3

Corporate culture, power and language

 

 

3.6.3.1

Corporate culture

 

 

3.6.4

Power

 

 

3.6.5

Genre: a brief overview

 

 

3.6.5.1

Business English genre

 

 

3.6.5.2

Moves, steps and cycles

 

 

3.6.5.3

Extra-linguistic aspects of genre study

 

 

3.6.6

Discussion: approaches to researching the ‘gamut - discourse and genre

 

 

3.6.6.1

Discourse

 

 

3.6.6.2

Genre

 

 

3.6.6.3

Discussion

 

 

3.7

Pickett’s Concept 3: Business communication - needs analysis and Business English

 

 

3.7.1

Needs analysis and Business English: who communicates with who?

 

 

3.7.2

Problems with needs analysis approaches

 

 

3.7.3

Language and needs analysis

 

 

3.7.4

Perceptions and intuition

 

 

3.7.5

An attempt to overcome the question of language in needs analysis

 

 

3.7.6

An attempt to overcome the question of intuition in needs analysis

 

 

3.7.7.

Language and needs surveys

 

 

3.7.8

Discussion

 

 

 

 

 

 

B: What Business English is thought to be

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.8.

Business English materials

 

 

3.8.1

General or special English?

 

 

3.8.8.1

Discussion

 

 

3.8.2

Categorising Business English materials

 

 

3.8.3

Analysis of the validity of Business English materials in relation to intuition

 

 

3.8.4

Studies of intuition outside Business English

 

 

3.8.5

Studies of intuition in Business English

 

 

3.8.6

Discussion

 

 

3.9

The review of the literature: summary and conclusions

 

 

3.9.1

Macro- vs micro-level knowledge

 

 

3.9.2

Single vs multi-disciplinary knowledge

 

 

3.9.3

Intuitive vs empirical knowledge

 

 

3.9.4

Research knowledge vs classroom practice

 

 

3.10

Afterword: towards a methodology

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4

Lexis: From Collocation to Colligation

 

 

4.1

Introduction

 

 

4.2

Vocabulary and pedagogy: a brief history

 

 

4.2.1

The 1950s to the present day

 

 

4.3

Collocation

 

 

4.3.1

A preliminary definition of collocation

 

 

4.3.1.1

Syntagmatic/paradigmatic relations

 

 

4.3.1.2

Reciprocal/non-reciprocal collocation

 

 

4.3.2

Development of the concept of collocation

 

 

4.3.3

Key elements of collocation

 

 

4.3.3.1

The notion of upward and downward collocation

 

 

4.3.3.2

The strength of collocations

 

 

4.3.3.3

The notion of collocational span - what makes a collocation?

 

 

4.3.3.4

Collocation as an embodiment of the ‘idiom principle’

 

 

4.3.3.5

Collocation, the idiom principle and Business English

 

 

4.3.3.6

Collocation and beyond

 

 

4.4

Semantic prosody

 

 

4.5

Colligation

 

 

4.5.1

Technical aspects of colligation

 

 

4.5.2

Pedagogy and colligation

 

 

4.6

A final view of collocation, colligation and semantic prosody

 

 

4.7

Multi-word items, prefabrication and the lexical approach

 

 

4.7.1

Introduction

 

 

4.7.2

What are multi-word items?

 

 

4.7.3

Gambits

 

 

4.7.4

Other definitions of MWIs

 

 

4.7.5

Discussion

 

 

4.7.6

Characteristics of MWIs: making sense of the definitions

 

 

4.7.6.1

Fixed and non-fixed: points on a continuum

 

 

4.7.6.2

The relationship of form and function

 

 

4.7.6.3

Competence, performance, the idiom principle and multi-word items

 

 

4.7.6.4

The lexical approach

 

 

4.8

Multi-word items in this thesis

 

 

4.9

The next chapter

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 5

The Methodological Background:

British Traditions of Text Analysis, Correlative Register Analysis and Corpus Linguistics

 

 

5.1

Introduction

 

 

5.2

British traditions in text analysis: Firth, Halliday and Sinclair

 

 

5.2.1

Principle 1: Linguistics is essentially a social science and an applied science

 

 

5.2.2

Principle 2: language should be studied in actual, attested, authentic instances of use, not as intuitive, invented, isolated sentences

 

 

5.2.3

Principle 3: The unit of study must be whole texts

 

 

5.2.4

Principle 4: Texts and text types must be studied comparatively across text corpora

 

 

5.2.5

Principle 5: Linguistics is concerned with the study of meaning: form and meaning are inseparable

 

 

5.2.6

Principle 6: There is no boundary between lexis and grammar: lexis and grammar are independent

 

 

5.2.7

Principle 7: Much language use is routine

 

 

5.2.8

Principle 8: language in use transmits the culture

 

 

5.2.9

Principle 9: Saussurian dualisms are misconceived

 

 

5.3

Corpus linguistics

 

 

5.3.1

Corpora: a brief history

 

 

5.3.2

Why use corpora?

 

 

5.3.3

Corpora: for and against

 

 

5.3.4

Reasons for the use of corpora in linguistic analysis

 

 

5.3.5

Some problems with the use of corpora for linguistic analysis

 

 

5.3.6

Corpora use in this study

 

 

5.4

The next chapter

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6

Creating the Corpora

 

 

6.1

Introduction

 

 

6.2

Corpus size

 

 

6.2.1

The size of the Business English Corpus

 

 

6.2.2

The size of the Published Materials Corpus

 

 

6.3

Sampling, representativeness and balance in the BEC

 

 

6.3.1

Introduction

 

 

6.3.2

Sampling

 

 

6.3.2.1

The population

 

 

6.3.2.2

Extra linguistic factors in relation to the population

 

 

6.3.2.3

Specification of macro-genre for the samples

 

 

6.3.2.4

Sample size and make-up

 

 

6.3.3

Balance and representativenes in the BEC

 

 

6.4

Sampling, balance and representativeness in the PMC

 

 

6.5

Data collection and entry

 

 

6.5.1

Data collection for the BEC

 

 

6.5.1.1

Publicly available data

 

 

6.5.1.2

Private data

 

 

6.5.2

Data collection for the PMC

 

 

6.5.3

Methods of data entry in the BEC

 

 

6.5.3.1

Adaption of material already in electronic form

 

 

6.5.3.2

Conversion by optical scanning

 

 

6.5.3.3

Conversion by keyboarding

 

 

6.5.4

Data entry in the PMC

 

 

6.5.5

Transcription

 

 

6.5.5.1

Spoken language transcription

 

 

6.6

Data storage and retrieval

 

 

6.7

Confidentiality, copyright and ethics

 

 

6.8

The reference corpus

 

 

6.9

Discussion and rationale

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

Hypotheses, Research Questions and Method

 

 

7.1

Introduction

 

 

7.2

Hypothesis One

 

 

7.3

Hypothesis Two

 

 

7.4

The next chapter

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8

Overview of results

 

 

8.1

Introduction

 

 

8.2

Analysis of the BEC

 

 

8.2.1

General statistics of the BEC

 

 

8.2.2

BEC frequency list unlemmatised/unedited

 

 

8.2.3

BEC frequency list (lemmatised)

 

 

8.2.4

BEC Key words

 

 

8.2.5

Grammatical categorisation of BEC frequency list

 

 

8.2.6

Grammatical categorisation of BEC positive key words

 

 

8.2.7

Semantic categorisation of BEC positive key words

 

 

8.2.8

Grammatical categorisation of BEC negative key words

 

 

8.2.9

Semantic categorisation of BEC positive key words

 

 

8.2.10

Analysis of 50 key words from the BEC

 

 

8.2.11

BEC 3-6 word cluster frequency lists

 

 

8.2.12

Key BEC 3-word clusters

 

 

8.2.13

Analysis of five key 2-word clusters from the BEC

 

 

8.2.14

Analysis of five 3-word clusters from the BEC

 

 

8.2.15

BEC Key key-word database

 

 

8.2.16

Analysis of five words from the BNC corpus

 

 

8.2.17

Collocates of the 50 key words shown by MI statistic

 

 

8.3

Analysis of the PMC

 

 

8.3.1

PMC general statistics

 

 

8.3.2

PMC frequency list unlemmatised/unedited

 

 

8.3.3

PMC list unlemmatised

 

 

8.3.4

PMC positive key words (BNC reference corpus)

 

 

8.3.5

PMC positive key words (BEC reference corpus)

 

 

8.3.6

Grammatical categorisation of PMC positive key words (BNC reference)

 

 

8.3.7

Semantic categorisation of PMC positive key words (BNC reference)

 

 

8.3.8

Grammatical categorisation of PMC positive key words (BEC reference)

 

 

8.3.9

Semantic categorisation of PMC positive key words (BNC reference)

 

 

8.3.10

Analysis of five key words from the PMC

 

 

8.3.11

PMC 3-word cluster frequency list

 

 

8.3.12

PMC key 3-word clusters in comparison to the BEC

 

 

8.3.13

PMC Key -key-word database

 

 

8.4

The next chapter

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9

Discussion

 

                               

 

Appendices

 

The appendices to this thesis are situated in two places. Firstly, in Volume II  that accompanies this volume, and secondly on the CD ROM  that is to be found inside the back cover of this volume.

 

In the Appendices in Vol.11

 

 

 

BEC

 

 

 

Appendix

Content

Page Number

 

 

 

Appendix 1

BEC lemmatised frequency list - top 1,000 words

 

Appendix 2

Grammatical categorisation of BEC positive key words

 

Appendix 3

Semantic categorisation of BEC positive key words

 

Appendix 4

Grammatical categorisation of BEC negative key words

 

Appendix 5

Semantic categorisation of BEC negative key words

 

Appendix 6

Analysis of 50 BEC key words:

 

 

customer

 

 

manager

 

 

supplier

 

 

distributor

 

 

shareholder

 

 

employee

 

 

staff

 

 

partner

 

 

boss

 

 

management

 

 

business

 

 

investment

 

 

delivery

 

 

payment

 

 

development

 

 

production

 

 

communication

 

 

competition

 

 

takeover

 

 

distribution

 

 

sell

 

 

manage

 

 

receive

 

 

confirm

 

 

provide

 

 

send

 

 

develop

 

 

discuss

 

 

achieve

 

 

improve

 

 

high

 

 

big

 

 

low

 

 

global

 

 

international

 

 

local

 

 

competitive

 

 

corporate

 

 

strategic

 

 

financial

 

 

sale

 

 

merger

 

 

trade

 

 

package

 

 

export

 

 

service

 

 

market

 

 

earnings

 

 

performance

 

 

product

 

 

 

 

Appendix 7

Five 2-word clusters

 

Appendix 8

Five 3-word clusters

 

Appendix 9

Five words from the BNC

 

Appendix 10

Collocates of the 50 words by MI statistic

 

Appendix 11

Example teaching materials

 

Appendix 12

Ideal vs Actual Content of the BEC

 

 

 

 

PMC

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 13

Grammatical categorisation of PMC positive key words (BNC reference)

 

Appendix 14

Semantic categorisation of PMC positive key words (BNC reference)

 

Appendix 15

Grammatical categorisation of PMC positive key words (BEC reference)

 

Appendix 16

 

Semantic categorisation of PMC positive key words (BEC reference)

 

Appendix 17

Analysis of 5 PMC keywords

 

 

manager

 

 

customer

 

 

product

 

 

market

 

 

business

 

 

 

 

ON THE CD ROM

 

 

 

 

Folder/File name

BEC

 

 

 

 

 

 

BEC Corpus

 

 

BEC Corpus: macro-genre version

 

 

BEC Corpus: split version (by 1,102 texts)

 

 

BEC Corpus: tagged version

 

 

BEC Filemaker Pro Database

 

 

PMC Corpus

 

 

Unlemmatised BEC frequency list

 

 

Lemmatised BEC frequency list

 

 

Positive BEC key words

 

 

Negative BEC key words

 

 

3-6 BEC frequency clusters

 

 

BEC key key-word database

 

 

Grammatical categorisation of BEC frequency list (top 1,000 lemmas)

 

 

 

 

PMC

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unlemmatised PMC frequency list

 

 

Lemmatised PMC frequency list

 

 

PMC (BNC) positive key word list

 

 

PMC (BEC) positive key word list

 

 

PMC 3-word cluster frequency list

 

 

PMC key 3-word cluster list  (BEC reference)

 

 

PMC Key key-word database