Railo, H., Kraufvelin, N., Santalahti, J., & Laine, T. (2023). Rapid withdrawal from threatening animals is movement-specific and mediated by reflex-like neural processing. BioRxiv. |Full text|

Colombari, E., & Railo, H. (2023). Multiple independent components contribute to event-related potential correlates of conscious vision. BioRxiv. |Full text|


Olkoniemi, H., Hurme, M.J., & Railo, H.(2022). Human ability to initiate reflexive eye movements towards unseen targets without the primary visual cortex. Neuroscience. |Full text|

Suuronen, I., Airola, A., Pahikkala, T., Murtojärvi, M., Kaasinen, V., & Railo, H. (2023). Budget-based classification of Parkinson’s disease from resting state EEG. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics. doi: 10.1109/JBHI.2023.3235040. |Full text|


Railo, H., Varjonen, A., Lehtonen, M., & Sikka, P. (2022). Event-related potential correlates of learning to produce novel foreign phonemes. Neurobiology of Language.|Full text|

Koivisto, M., Jalava, E., Kuusisto, L., Railo, H., & Grassini, S. (2022). Top-down processing and nature connectedness predict psychological and physiological effects of nature. Environment and Behavior. |Full text|

Luotonen, S., Railo, H.,  Acosta, H., Huotilainen, M.,  Lavonius, M., Karlsson, L., Karlsson, H., Tuulari, J.J. (2022). Auditory Mismatch Responses to Emotional Stimuli in 3-Year-Olds in Relation to Prenatal Maternal Depression Symptoms. Frontiers in Neuroscience, |Full text|

Filimonov, D., Railo, H., Revonsuo, A., &; Koivisto, M. (2022). Modality-specific and modality-general electrophysiological correlates of visual and auditory awareness: Evidence from a bimodal ERP experiment. Neuropsychologia, |Full text|

Hurme, M. & Railo, H. (2022). Promise and challenges for discovering transcranial magnetic stimulation induced “numbsense”—Commentary on Ro & Koenig (2021). Consciousness and Cognition, |Full text|


Koivisto, M., Leino, K., Pekkarinen, A., Karttunen, J., Railo, H., & Hurme, M. (2021). TMS-induced blindsight of orientation is degraded conscious vision. Neuroscience, |Full text|

Railo, H., Piccin, R., & Lukasik, K.M. (2021). Subliminal perception is continuous with conscious vision and can be predicted from prestimulus electroencephalographic activity. European Journal of Neuroscience, |Full text|

Railo, H. & Hurme, M. (2021). Is the primary visual cortex necessary for blindsight-like behavior? Review of transcranial magnetic stimulation studies in neurologically healthy individuals. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 127, 353-364. |Full text|

Tuominen, J., Kallio, S., Kaasinen, V., & Railo, H. (2021). Segregated brain state during hypnosis. Neuroscience of Consciousness. |Full text|


Lind, A., Haataja, L., Laasonen, M., Saunavaara, V., Railo, H., Lehtonen, T., Vorobyev, V., Uusitalo, K., Lahti, K., & Parkkola, R. (2020). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging during Visual Perception Tasks in Adolescents Born Prematurely. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. |Full text|

Railo, H., Nokelainen, N., Savolainen, S. &, Kaasinen, V. (2020). Deficits in monitoring self-produced speech in Parkinson’s disease. Clinical Neurophysiology. |Full text|

Lavonius, M., Railo, H., Karlsson, L., Wikström, V., Tuulari, J.T., Scheinin, N.M., Paavolainen, J., Polo-Kantola, P., Karlsson, H., & Huotilainen, M. (2020). Maternal sleep quality during pregnancy is associated with neonatal auditory ERPs. Scientific Reports, 7228. |Full text|

Hurme, M., Koivisto, M., Henriksson, L., & Railo, H. (2020). Neuronavigated TMS of early visual cortex eliminates unconscious processing of chromatic stimuli. Neuropsychologia, 136. |Full text|


Jylkkä, J. & Railo, H. (2019). Consciousness as a concrete physical phenomenon. Consciousness and Cognition, 74 , 102779. |Full text|

Hurme, M., Koivisto, M., Revonsuo, A., & Railo, H. (2019). V1 activity during feedforward and early feedback processing is necessary for both conscious and unconscious motion perception. NeuroImage, 185, 313-321. |Full text|


Railo, H., Olkoniemi, H., Eeronheimo, E., Pääkkönen, O., Joutsa, J., & Kaasinen, V. (2018). Dopamine and eye movement control in Parkinson’s disease: deficits in corollary discharge signals. PeerJ, 6:e6038. |Full text|

Railo, H., Saastamoinen, J., Kylmälä, S., & Peltola, A. (2018). Binocular disparity can augment the capacity of vision independently of subjective experience of depth. Scientific Reports, 8. |Full text|

Grassini, S.N., Railo, H., Valli, K., Revonsuo, A., & Koivisto, M. (2018). Visual features and perceptual context modulate attention towards evolutionarily relevant threatening stimuli: Electrophysiological evidence. Emotion. doi: |Full text|


Koivisto, M., Grassini, S., Hurme, M., Salminen-Vaparanta, N., Railo, H., Vorobyev, V., Tallus, J., Paavilainen, T., & Revonsuo, A. (2017). TMS-EEG reveals hemispheric asymmetries in top-down influences of posterior intraparietal cortex on behavior and visual event-related potentials. Neuropsychologia, 107, 94-101. doi: |Full text|

Koivisto, M., Harjuniemi, I., Railo, H., Salminen-Vaparanta, N., & Revonsuo, A. (2017). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of early visual cortex suppresses conscious representations in a dichotomous manner without gradually decreasing their precision. NeuroImage, 158, 308-318. doi: |Full text|

Ruusuvirta, T. & Railo, H. (2017). Judging total volumes of silhouetted spheres in different numerosities. Perception, 46(10), 1183-1193. doi: 10.1177/0301006617711063. |Full text|

Hurme, M., Koivisto, M., Revonsuo, A., & Railo, H. (2017). Early processing in primary visual cortex is necessary for conscious and unconscious vision while late processing is necessary only for conscious vision in neurologically healthy humans. NeuroImage, 150, 230-238. |Full text|

Railo, H.,Tuominen, J., Kaasinen, V., & Pesonen, H. (2017). Dynamic Changes in Cortical Effective Connectivity Underlie Transsaccadic Integration in Humans. Cerebral Cortex, 27, 3609-3617, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhw182. |Full text|


Grassini, S., Holm, S. K., Railo, H., & Koivisto, M. (2016). Who is afraid of the invisible snake? Subjective visual awareness modulates posterior brain activity for evolutionarily threatening stimuli. Biological Psychology, 121, 53-61. . , 41-48. |Full text|

Railo, H.,Karhu, V.-M., Mast, J., Pesonen, H., & Koivisto, M. (2016). Rapid and accurate processing of multiple objects in briefly presented scenes. Journal of Vision, 16, doi:10.1167/16.3.8. |Full text|


Lähteenmäki, M., Sormunen, E., Koivisto, M., Railo, H., & Tuominen,. L. (2015). TMS-induced seizure following focal single-pulse IPS stimulation. Brain Stimulation, 1238. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2015.09.003 , 41-48. |Full text|

Railo, H., Revonsuo, A., & Koivisto, M. (2015). Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for fast emergence of visual consciousness. Neuroscience of Consciousness, doi: 10.1093/nc/niv004. |Full text|


Railo, H. (2014). Bilateral and two-item advantage in subitizing. Vision Reseach, 103, 41-48. |Full text|

Railo, H., Andersson, E., Kaasinen, V., Laine, T., & Koivisto, M. (2014). Unlike in clinical blindsight patients, unconscious processing of chromatic information depends on early visual cortex in healthy humans. Brain Stimulation, 7, 415-420. |Full text|

Koivisto, M., Lähteenmäki, M., Kaasinen, V., Parkkola, R., & Railo,. H., (2014). Overlapping activity periods in early visual cortex and posterior intraparietal area in conscious visual shape perception: a TMS study. NeuroImage, 84, 765-774. |Full text|


Henriksson, L., Karvonen, J., Salminen-Vaparanta, N., Railo, H., & Vanni, S. (2012). Retinotopic Maps, Spatial Tuning, and Locations of Human Visual Areas in Surface Coordinates Characterized with Multifocal and Blocked fMRI Designs. PLOS One, 7, e36859. |Full text|

Koivisto, M., Revonsuo, Henriksson, L., & Railo, H. (2012). Unconscious response priming by shape depends on geniculostriate visual projection European Journal of Neuroscience, 35, 623-633. |Full text|

Railo, H., Salminen-Vaparanta, N., Henriksson, L., Revonsuo, A., & Koivisto, M. (2012). Unconscious and conscious processing of color rely on activity in early visual cortex: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 819 – 829. |Full text|

Railo, H., & Hannula-Sormunen, M. (2012). Subitizing. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning.

Railo, H., & Koivisto, M. (2012). Two means of suppressing visual awareness: A direct comparison of visual masking and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Cortex, 48, 333-343. |Full text|


Railo, H., Tallus, J., & Hämäläinen, H. (2011). Right visual field advantage for perceived contrast: Correlation with an auditory bias and handedness. Brain and Cognition, 77, 391-400. |Full text|

Railo, H., Koivisto, M., Revonsuo, A. (2011). Tracking the processes behind conscious perception: A review of event-related potential correlates of visual consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 972-983. |Full text|

Koivisto, M., Railo., H., Revonsuo, A., Vanni, S., & Salminen-Vaparanta, N. (2011). Recurrent processing in V1/V2 contributes to categorization of natural scenes. Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 2488-2492. |PDF|

Koivisto, M., Railo, H., & Salminen-Vaparanta, N. (2011). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of early visual cortex interferes with subjective visual awareness and objective forced-choice performance. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 288-298.
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Railo, H. & Koivisto, M. (2009). Reply to Bachmann on ERP correlates of visual awareness. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 809-810. |Full text|

Railo, H. & Koivisto, M. (2009). The electrophysiological correlates of stimulus visibility and metacontrast masking. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 794-803. |Full text|
Jylkkä, J., Railo, H., & Haukioja, J. (2009). Psychological Essentialism and Semantic Externalism: Evidence for Externalism in Lay Speakers’ Language Use. Philosophical Psychology, 22, 37-60 |PDF|


Railo, H., Koivisto, M., Revonsuo, A., & Hannula, M. M. (2008). The role of attention in subitizing. Cognition, 107, 82-104. |PDF|